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      Behçet’s Disease in Children: Diagnostic and Management Challenges

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          Behçet’s Disease (BD) is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology with multisystemic involvement, being the main clinical manifestations represented by recurrent oral and genital ulcerations and uveitis. The disease has typically a chronic-relapsing course and may cause significant morbidity and mortality due to eye, vascular and neurological involvement. Although BD is more frequently diagnosed in adulthood, the disease onset can also be in pediatric age. Pediatric-onset BD is commonly featured by an incomplete clinical picture, and therefore the diagnosis represents a considerable clinical challenge for the physicians. The first classification criteria for pediatric BD, based on a scoring system, have been proposed few years ago. This work focuses on the main difficulties concerning both the diagnostic approach and the treatment of BD in pediatric age. The recommendation for the treatment of pediatric BD has been recently updated and allowed a considerable improvement of the therapeutic strategies. In particular, the use of anti-TNFα drugs as a second-line option for refractory BD, and as a first-line treatment in severe ocular and neurological involvement, has demonstrated to be effective in improving the outcome of BD patients. The knowledge about the molecular pathogenesis is progressively increasing, showing that BD shares common features with autoimmune and autoinflammatory disorders, and thus leading to the use of new biologic agents targeting the main mediators involved in the determination of BD. Anti-IL-17, anti-IL-23, anti-IL-1 and anti-IL-6 agents have shown promising results for the treatment of refractory BD in clinical trials and will represent an important alternative for the therapeutic approach to the disease.

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          Most cited references 106

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          Production of interleukin 22 but not interleukin 17 by a subset of human skin-homing memory T cells.

          Interleukin 22 (IL-22) is a cytokine produced by the T(H)-17 lineage of helper T cells and NK-22 subset of natural killer cells that acts on epithelial cells and keratinocytes and has been linked to skin homeostasis and inflammation. Here we characterize a population of human skin-homing memory CD4(+) T cells that expressed the chemokine receptors CCR10, CCR6 and CCR4 and produced IL-22 but neither IL-17 nor interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Clones isolated from this population produced IL-22 only and had low or undetectable expression of the T(H)-17 and T helper type 1 (T(H)1) transcription factors RORgammat and T-bet. The differentiation of T cells producing only IL-22 was efficiently induced in naive T cells by plasmacytoid dendritic cells in an IL-6- and tumor necrosis factor-dependent way. Our findings delineate a previously unknown subset of human CD4(+) effector T cells dedicated to skin pathophysiology.
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            HLA-B51/B5 and the risk of Behçet's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control genetic association studies.

            To quantify by meta-analysis the genetic effect of the HLA-B5 or HLA-B51 (HLA-B51/B5) allele on the risk of developing Behçet's disease (BD) and to look for potential effect modifiers. Relevant studies were identified using the PubMed Medline database and manual searches of the literature. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by using the random-effects model. Subgroup meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses were undertaken to investigate the effects of selected study-level parameters on the pooled OR. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic. Pooled results were used to calculate population-attributable risks (PAR) for BD in relationship to HLA-B51/B5. A total of 4,800 patients with BD and 16,289 controls from 78 independent studies (published 1975-2007) were selected. The pooled OR of HLA-B51/B5 allele carriers to develop BD compared with noncarriers was 5.78 (95% CI 5.00-6.67), with moderate between-study heterogeneity (I2 = 61%). The subgroup analyses stratifying studies by geographic locations (Eastern Asia, Middle East/North Africa, Southern Europe, Northern/Eastern Europe) yielded consistent OR ranges (5.31-7.20), with I2 ranges of 52-70%. Univariate random-effects meta-regression indicated the percentage of male BD cases (P = 0.008) as a source of heterogeneity. The PAR within the various geographic areas were estimated at 32-52%. The strength of the association between BD and HLA-B51/B5, and its consistency across populations of various ethnicities, lends further support to this allele being a primary and causal risk determinant for BD. Variations according to sex support an interaction of this allele with BD characteristics.
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              2018 update of the EULAR recommendations for the management of Behçet’s syndrome

              Several new treatment modalities with different mechanisms of action have been studied in patients with Behçet's syndrome (BS). The aim of the current effort was to update the recommendations in the light of these new data under the auspices of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Standing Committee for Clinical Affairs. A task force was formed that included BS experts from different specialties including internal medicine, rheumatology, ophthalmology, dermatology, neurology, gastroenterology, oral health medicine and vascular surgery, along with a methodologist, a health professional, two patients and two fellows in charge of the systematic literature search. Research questions were determined using a Delphi approach. EULAR standardised operating procedures was used as the framework. Results of the systematic literature review were presented to the task force during a meeting. The former recommendations were modified or new recommendations were formed after thorough discussions followed by voting. The recommendations on the medical management of mucocutaneous, joint, eye, vascular, neurological and gastrointestinal involvement of BS were modified; five overarching principles and a new recommendation about the surgical management of vascular involvement were added. These updated, evidence-based recommendations are intended to help physicians caring for patients with BS. They also attempt to highlight the shortcomings of the available clinical research with the aim of proposing an agenda for further research priorities.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                11 June 2020
                : 16
                : 495-507
                [1 ]Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Pediatrics, University of Pisa , Pisa, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Giorgio Costagliola Email giorgio.costagliola@hotmail.com
                © 2020 Costagliola et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Tables: 5, References: 116, Pages: 13


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