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      Arboviral Bottlenecks and Challenges to Maintaining Diversity and Fitness during Mosquito Transmission

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          Abstract

          The term arbovirus denotes viruses that are transmitted by arthropods, such as ticks, mosquitoes, and other biting arthropods. The infection of these vectors produces a certain set of evolutionary pressures on the virus; involving migration from the midgut, where the blood meal containing the virus is processed, to the salivary glands, in order to transmit the virus to the next host. During this process the virus is subject to numerous bottlenecks, stochastic events that significantly reduce the number of viral particles that are able to infect the next stage. This article reviews the latest research on the bottlenecks that occur in arboviruses and the way in which these affect the evolution and fitness of these viruses. In particular we focus on the latest research on three important arboviruses, West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and Chikungunya viruses and compare the differing effects of the mosquito bottlenecks on these viruses as well as other evolutionary pressures that affect their evolution and transmission.

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          Most cited references 51

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          THE RELATION OF RECOMBINATION TO MUTATIONAL ADVANCE.

           J. Müller (1964)
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            Two Chikungunya Isolates from the Outbreak of La Reunion (Indian Ocean) Exhibit Different Patterns of Infection in the Mosquito, Aedes albopictus

            Background A Chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak hit La Réunion Island in 2005–2006. The implicated vector was Aedes albopictus. Here, we present the first study on the susceptibility of Ae. albopictus populations to sympatric CHIKV isolates from La Réunion Island and compare it to other virus/vector combinations. Methodology and Findings We orally infected 8 Ae. albopictus collections from La Réunion and 3 from Mayotte collected in March 2006 with two Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) from La Réunion: (i) strain 05.115 collected in June 2005 with an Alanine at the position 226 of the glycoprotein E1 and (ii) strain 06.21 collected in November 2005 with a substitution A226V. Two other CHIKV isolates and four additional mosquito strains/species were also tested. The viral titer of the infectious blood-meal was 107 plaque forming units (pfu)/mL. Dissemination rates were assessed by immunofluorescent staining on head squashes of surviving females 14 days after infection. Rates were at least two times higher with CHIKV 06.21 compared to CHIKV 05.115. In addition, 10 individuals were analyzed every day by quantitative RT-PCR. Viral RNA was quantified on (i) whole females and (ii) midguts and salivary glands of infected females. When comparing profiles, CHIKV 06.21 produced nearly 2 log more viral RNA copies than CHIKV 05.115. Furthermore, females infected with CHIKV 05.115 could be divided in two categories: weakly susceptible or strongly susceptible, comparable to those infected by CHIKV 06.21. Histological analysis detected the presence of CHIKV in salivary glands two days after infection. In addition, Ae. albopictus from La Réunion was as efficient vector as Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from Vietnam when infected with the CHIKV 06.21. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that the CHIK outbreak in La Réunion Island was due to a highly competent vector Ae. albopictus which allowed an efficient replication and dissemination of CHIKV 06.21.
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              Alphavirus-derived small RNAs modulate pathogenesis in disease vector mosquitoes.

              Mosquito-borne viruses cause significant levels of morbidity and mortality in humans and domesticated animals. Maintenance of mosquito-borne viruses in nature requires a biological transmission cycle that involves alternating virus replication in a susceptible vertebrate and mosquito host. Although the vertebrate infection is acute and often associated with disease, continual transmission of these viruses in nature depends on the establishment of a persistent, nonpathogenic infection in the mosquito vector. An antiviral RNAi response has been shown to limit the replication of RNA viruses in flies. However, the importance of the RNAi pathway as an antiviral defense in mammals is unclear. Differences in the immune responses of mammals and mosquitoes may explain why these viruses are not generally associated with pathology in the invertebrate host. We identified virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs), 21 nt in length, in Aedes aegypti infected with the mosquito-borne virus, Sindbis (SINV). viRNAs had an asymmetric distribution that spanned the length of the SINV genome. To determine the role of viRNAs in controlling pathogenic potential, mosquitoes were infected with recombinant alphaviruses expressing suppressors of RNA silencing. Decreased survival was observed in mosquitoes in which the accumulation of viRNAs was suppressed. These results suggest that an exogenous siRNA pathway is essential to the survival of mosquitoes infected with alphaviruses and, thus, the maintenance of these viruses in nature.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: External Editor
                Journal
                Viruses
                Viruses
                viruses
                Viruses
                MDPI
                1999-4915
                23 October 2014
                October 2014
                : 6
                : 10
                : 3991-4004
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0610, USA; E-Mail: sweaver@ 123456utmb.edu
                [2 ]Center for Vectorborne Diseases and Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA; E-Mail: lcoffey@ 123456ucdavis.edu
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: naforres@ 123456utmb.edu ; Tel.: +1-409-266-6911; Fax: +1-409-747-2429.
                Article
                viruses-06-03991
                10.3390/v6103991
                4213574
                25341663
                © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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