Blog
About

1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Nutrition and Female Fertility: An Interdependent Correlation

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Besides aging, a number of non-modifiable lifestyle-related factors, such as smoking, elevated consumption of caffeine and alcohol, stress, agonist sports, chronic exposure to environmental pollutants, and other nutritional habits exert a negative impact on a women's fertility. In particular, metabolic disorders including diabetes, obesity, and hyperlipidemia commonly associated to hypercaloric diets are suspected to affect a woman's fertility either by direct damage to oocyte health and differentiation, or by indirect interference with the pituitary-hypothalamic axis, resulting in dysfunctional oogenesis. Obese women show decreased insulin sensitivity determining persistent hyperinsulinemia, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Thus, the reduced insulin secretion induced by dietary adjustments is an attractive non-pharmacological treatment to prevent infertility, and a Mediterranean diet aimed at maintaining normal body mass may be effective in the preservation of ovarian health and physiology. Furthermore, in relation to the oxidative stress as a co-factor of defective oocyte maturation, an appropriate intake of proteins, antioxidants and methyl-donor supplements (1-Carbon Cycle) may decrease the bioavailability of toxic oxidants resulting in the protection of oocyte maturation.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 75

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense

          Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by living organisms as a result of normal cellular metabolism and environmental factors, such as air pollutants or cigarette smoke. ROS are highly reactive molecules and can damage cell structures such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins and alter their functions. The shift in the balance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of oxidants is termed “oxidative stress.” Regulation of reducing and oxidizing (redox) state is critical for cell viability, activation, proliferation, and organ function. Aerobic organisms have integrated antioxidant systems, which include enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants that are usually effective in blocking harmful effects of ROS. However, in pathological conditions, the antioxidant systems can be overwhelmed. Oxidative stress contributes to many pathological conditions and diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia/perfusion, diabetes, acute respiratory distress syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. In this review, we summarize the cellular oxidant and antioxidant systems and discuss the cellular effects and mechanisms of the oxidative stress.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Systematic review and meta-analysis of different dietary approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes.

            There is evidence that reducing blood glucose concentrations, inducing weight loss, and improving the lipid profile reduces cardiovascular risk in people with type 2 diabetes. We assessed the effect of various diets on glycemic control, lipids, and weight loss. We conducted searches of PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar to August 2011. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with interventions that lasted ≥6 mo that compared low-carbohydrate, vegetarian, vegan, low-glycemic index (GI), high-fiber, Mediterranean, and high-protein diets with control diets including low-fat, high-GI, American Diabetes Association, European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and low-protein diets. A total of 20 RCTs were included (n = 3073 included in final analyses across 3460 randomly assigned individuals). The low-carbohydrate, low-GI, Mediterranean, and high-protein diets all led to a greater improvement in glycemic control [glycated hemoglobin reductions of -0.12% (P = 0.04), -0.14% (P = 0.008), -0.47% (P < 0.00001), and -0.28% (P < 0.00001), respectively] compared with their respective control diets, with the largest effect size seen in the Mediterranean diet. Low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean diets led to greater weight loss [-0.69 kg (P = 0.21) and -1.84 kg (P < 0.00001), respectively], with an increase in HDL seen in all diets except the high-protein diet. Low-carbohydrate, low-GI, Mediterranean, and high-protein diets are effective in improving various markers of cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes and should be considered in the overall strategy of diabetes management.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              Infertility and the provision of infertility medical services in developing countries

              BACKGROUND Worldwide more than 70 million couples suffer from infertility, the majority being residents of developing countries. Negative consequences of childlessness are experienced to a greater degree in developing countries when compared with Western societies. Bilateral tubal occlusion due to sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy-related infections is the most common cause of infertility in developing countries, a condition that is potentially treatable with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). New reproductive technologies are either unavailable or very costly in developing countries. This review provides a comprehensive survey of all important papers on the issue of infertility in developing countries. METHODS Medline, PubMed, Excerpta Medica and EMBASE searches identified relevant papers published between 1978 and 2007 and the keywords used were the combinations of ‘affordable, assisted reproduction, ART, developing countries, health services, infertility, IVF, simplified methods, traditional health care'. RESULTS The exact prevalence of infertility in developing countries is unknown due to a lack of registration and well-performed studies. On the other hand, the implementation of appropriate infertility treatment is currently not a main goal for most international non-profit organizations. Keystones in the successful implementation of infertility care in low-resource settings include simplification of diagnostic and ART procedures, minimizing the complication rate of interventions, providing training-courses for health-care workers and incorporating infertility treatment into sexual and reproductive health-care programmes. CONCLUSIONS Although recognizing the importance of education and prevention, we believe that for the reasons of social justice, infertility treatment in developing countries requires greater attention at National and International levels.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari Aldo Moro , Bari, Italy
                Author notes

                Edited by: John Lui Yovich, Pivet Medical Center, Australia

                Reviewed by: Syeda Nureena Zaidi, Pivet Medical Center, Australia; David Sharkey, University of Adelaide, Australia

                *Correspondence: Raffaele Palmirotta raffaelepalmirotta@ 123456gmail.com

                This article was submitted to Reproduction, a section of the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front. Endocrinol.
                Frontiers in Endocrinology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-2392
                07 June 2019
                2019
                : 10
                10.3389/fendo.2019.00346
                6568019
                Copyright © 2019 Silvestris, Lovero and Palmirotta.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Counts
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 77, Pages: 13, Words: 8937
                Categories
                Endocrinology
                Review

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

                nutrition, diet, oocytes, anovulation, infertility, obesity

                Comments

                Comment on this article