Besides aging, a number of non-modifiable lifestyle-related factors, such as smoking, elevated consumption of caffeine and alcohol, stress, agonist sports, chronic exposure to environmental pollutants, and other nutritional habits exert a negative impact on a women's fertility. In particular, metabolic disorders including diabetes, obesity, and hyperlipidemia commonly associated to hypercaloric diets are suspected to affect a woman's fertility either by direct damage to oocyte health and differentiation, or by indirect interference with the pituitary-hypothalamic axis, resulting in dysfunctional oogenesis. Obese women show decreased insulin sensitivity determining persistent hyperinsulinemia, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Thus, the reduced insulin secretion induced by dietary adjustments is an attractive non-pharmacological treatment to prevent infertility, and a Mediterranean diet aimed at maintaining normal body mass may be effective in the preservation of ovarian health and physiology. Furthermore, in relation to the oxidative stress as a co-factor of defective oocyte maturation, an appropriate intake of proteins, antioxidants and methyl-donor supplements (1-Carbon Cycle) may decrease the bioavailability of toxic oxidants resulting in the protection of oocyte maturation.