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      Copper additive manufacturing using MIM feedstock: adjustment of printing, debinding, and sintering parameters for processing dense and defectless parts

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          Abstract

          In the present study, an additive manufacturing process of copper using extrusion 3D printing, solvent and thermal debinding, and sintering was explored. Extrusion 3D printing of metal injection moulding (MIM) feedstock was used to fabricate green body samples. The printing process was performed with optimized parameters to achieve high green density and low surface roughness. To remove water-soluble polymer, the green body was immersed in water for solvent debinding. The interconnected voids formed during solvent debinding were favorable for removing the backbone polymer from the brown body during thermal debinding. Thermal debinding was performed up to 500 °C, and ~ 6.5% total weight loss of the green sample was estimated. Finally, sintering of the thermally debinded samples was performed at 950, 1000, 1030, and 1050° C. The highest sintering temperature provided the highest relative density (94.5%) and isotropic shrinkage. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) examination was performed on green samples and sintered samples, and qualitative and quantitative analysis of the porosity confirmed the benefits of optimized printing conditions for the final microstructure. This work opens up the opportunity for 3D printing and sintering to produce pure copper components with complicated shapes and high density, utilizing raw MIM feedstock as the starting material.

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          Material issues in additive manufacturing: A review

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            A state-of-the-art review on types, design, optimization, and additive manufacturing of cellular structures

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              Support Structures for Additive Manufacturing: A Review

              Additive manufacturing (AM) has developed rapidly since its inception in the 1980s. AM is perceived as an environmentally friendly and sustainable technology and has already gained a lot of attention globally. The potential freedom of design offered by AM is, however, often limited when printing complex geometries due to an inability to support the stresses inherent within the manufacturing process. Additional support structures are often needed, which leads to material, time and energy waste. Research in support structures is, therefore, of great importance for the future and further improvement of additive manufacturing. This paper aims to review the varied research that has been performed in the area of support structures. Fifty-seven publications regarding support structure optimization are selected and categorized into six groups for discussion. A framework is established in which future research into support structures can be pursued and standardized. By providing a comprehensive review and discussion on support structures, AM can be further improved and developed in terms of support waste in the future, thus, making AM a more sustainable technology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
                Int J Adv Manuf Technol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0268-3768
                1433-3015
                July 2021
                May 10 2021
                July 2021
                : 115
                : 1-2
                : 449-462
                Article
                10.1007/s00170-021-07188-y
                aaf44651-caea-4322-9b54-e5b240783704
                © 2021

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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