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      Sensitivity to Pain Traumatization Scale: development, validation, and preliminary findings

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          This article reports three studies describing the development and validation of the 12-item Sensitivity to Pain Traumatization Scale (SPTS-12). SPT refers to the anxiety-related cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions to pain that resemble the features of a traumatic stress reaction.


          In Study 1, a preliminary set of 79 items was administered to 116 participants. The data were analyzed by using combined nonparametric and parametric item response theory resulting in a 12-item scale with a one-factor structure and good preliminary psychometric properties. Studies 2 and 3 assessed the factor structure and psychometric properties of the SPTS-12 in a community sample of 823 participants (268 with chronic pain and 555 pain-free) and a clinical sample of 345 patients (126 with chronic post-surgical pain, 92 with other nonsurgical chronic pain, and 127 with no chronic pain) at least 6 months after undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery, respectively.


          The final SPTS-12 derived from Study 1 comprised 12 items that discriminated between individuals with different levels of SPT, with the overall scale showing good to very good reliability and validity. The results from Studies 2 and 3 revealed a one-factor structure for chronic pain and pain-free samples, excellent reliability and concurrent validity, and moderate convergent and discriminant validity.


          The results of the three studies provide preliminary evidence for the validity and reliability of the SPTS-12.

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          Most cited references 52

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          Determining the number of components from the matrix of partial correlations

           Wayne Velicer (1976)
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            International experiences with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale--a review of validation data and clinical results.

            More than 200 published studies from most medical settings worldwide have reported experiences with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) which was specifically developed by Zigmond and Snaith for use with physically ill patients. Although introduced in 1983, there is still no comprehensive documentation of its psychometric properties. The present review summarizes available data on reliability and validity and gives an overview of clinical studies conducted with this instrument and their most important findings. The HADS gives clinically meaningful results as a psychological screening tool, in clinical group comparisons and in correlational studies with several aspects of disease and quality of life. It is sensitive to changes both during the course of diseases and in response to psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological intervention. Finally, HADS scores predict psychosocial and possibly also physical outcome.
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              Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II: a comprehensive review

              Objective: To review the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) as a self-report measure of depression in a variety of settings and populations. Methods: Relevant studies of the BDI-II were retrieved through a search of electronic databases, a hand search, and contact with authors. Retained studies (k = 118) were allocated into three groups: non-clinical, psychiatric/institutionalized, and medical samples. Results: The internal consistency was described as around 0.9 and the retest reliability ranged from 0.73 to 0.96. The correlation between BDI-II and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-I) was high and substantial overlap with measures of depression and anxiety was reported. The criterion-based validity showed good sensitivity and specificity for detecting depression in comparison to the adopted gold standard. However, the cutoff score to screen for depression varied according to the type of sample. Factor analysis showed a robust dimension of general depression composed by two constructs: cognitive-affective and somatic-vegetative. Conclusions: The BDI-II is a relevant psychometric instrument, showing high reliability, capacity to discriminate between depressed and non-depressed subjects, and improved concurrent, content, and structural validity. Based on available psychometric evidence, the BDI-II can be viewed as a cost-effective questionnaire for measuring the severity of depression, with broad applicability for research and clinical practice worldwide.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                30 May 2017
                : 10
                : 1297-1316
                [1 ]Department of Psychology, York University
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON
                [3 ]Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), Montreal, QC, Canada
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Joel Katz, Department of Psychology, York University, 4700 Keele St., BSB 232, Toronto, ON, Canada, M3J 1P3, Tel +1 416 736 2100 ext, 40557, Email jkatz@ 123456yorku.ca
                © 2017 Katz et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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