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      Prognostic value of the controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients especially who had long-time alcohol consumption

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          Abstract

          Our study is to investigate the preoperative prognostic value of the Controlling Nutritional Status score in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients after curative resection. One hundred and sixty-seven patients admitted to our hospital between January 2012 and December 2018 were included retrospectively. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted to evaluate the ability of the Controlling Nutritional Status score to predict recurrence and survival. Patients with high Controlling Nutritional Status score (≥3) had significantly poorer RFS compared to those with low Controlling Nutritional Status score (low: <3) ( p = 0.000) in Kaplan–Meier survival curve. Multivariate analyses identified Controlling Nutritional Status score, lymph node metastasis, tumor numbers and preoperative CEA as independent prognostic factors for RFS. Lymph node metastasis was the independent risk factor of OS. The Cox regression model with Controlling Nutritional Status score had better prognostic value for recurrence than the Cox regression model without Controlling Nutritional Status score in long-time alcohol consumption intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients (AUC: 0.760 vs 0.706, p = 0.036). CONUT score may be a more powerful prognostic biomarker, which is tightly associated with other tumor characteristics, to predict recurrence but not survival, especially in long-time alcohol consumption intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients after curative-intent surgery.

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          Most cited references30

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          Cholangiocarcinoma — evolving concepts and therapeutic strategies

          Cholangiocarcinoma is a disease entity comprising diverse epithelial tumours with features of cholangiocyte differentiation: cholangiocarcinomas are categorized according to anatomical location as intrahepatic (iCCA), perihilar (pCCA), or distal (dCCA). Each subtype has a distinct epidemiology, biology, prognosis, and strategy for clinical management. The incidence of cholangiocarcinoma, particularly iCCA, has increased globally over the past few decades. Surgical resection remains the mainstay of potentially curative treatment for all three disease subtypes, whereas liver transplantation after neoadjuvant chemoradiation is restricted to a subset of patients with early stage pCCA. For patients with advanced-stage or unresectable disease, locoregional and systemic chemotherapeutics are the primary treatment options. Improvements in external-beam radiation therapy have facilitated the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. Moreover, advances in comprehensive whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing have defined the genetic landscape of each cholangiocarcinoma subtype. Accordingly, promising molecular targets for precision medicine have been identified, and are being evaluated in clinical trials, including those exploring immunotherapy. Biomarker-driven trials, in which patients are stratified according to anatomical cholangiocarcinoma subtype and genetic aberrations, will be essential in the development of targeted therapies. Targeting the rich tumour stroma of cholangiocarcinoma in conjunction with targeted therapies might also be useful. Herein, we review the evolving developments in the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of cholangiocarcinoma.
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            CONUT: A tool for Controlling Nutritional Status. First validation in a hospital population

            Background: The serious problem of hospital undernutrition is still being underestimated, despite its impact on clinical evolution and costs. The screening methods developed so far are not useful for daily clinical practice due to their low effectiveness/cost ratio. Objective:We present an screening tool for CONtrolling NUTritional status (CONUT) that allows an automatic daily assessment of nutritional status of all inpatients that undergo routine analysis. Design: The system is based on a computer application that compiles daily all useful patient information available in hospital databases, through the internal network. It automatically assesses the nutritional status taking into account laboratory information including serum albumin, total cholesterol level and total lymphocyte count. We have studied the association between the results of the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and Full Nutritional Assessment (FNA) with those from CONUT, in a sample of 53 individuals. Results: The agreement degree between CONUT and FNA as measured by kappa index is 0.669 (p = 0.003), and between CONUT and SGA is 0.488 (p = 0.034). Considering FNA as "gold standard" we obtain a sensitivity of 92.3 and a specificity of 85.0. Conclusions: CONUT seems to be an efficient tool for early detection and continuous control of hospital undernutrition, with the suitable characteristics for these screening functions.
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              Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

              Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) are the most frequently occurring types of primary liver cancer and together are among the most common incident cancers worldwide. There are a number of modifiable and nonmodifiable HCC and ICC risk factors that have been reported. A review of the existing literature the epidemiology and risk factors for HCC and ICC was performed. There are a number of major infectious, lifestyle, metabolic, and heritable risk factors for both HCC and ICC. Some of these risk factors are either potentially preventable (eg, alcohol and tobacco use) or are currently treatable (eg hepatitis infection). In most cases, the molecular pathway or mechanism by which these etiologic factors cause primary liver cancer has not been well delineated. However, in nearly all cases, it is believed that a given risk factor causes liver injury and inflammation which results in chronic liver disease. Given the rising prevalence of several common HCC and ICC risk factors in the western world, the best opportunities for improving the care of these patients are either through the prevention of modifiable risk factors that are associated with the development of chronic liver disease or the identification of at risk patients, ensuring they are appropriately screened for the development of primary liver cancer, and initiating treatment early.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Clin Biochem Nutr
                J Clin Biochem Nutr
                JCBN
                Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
                the Society for Free Radical Research Japan (Kyoto, Japan )
                0912-0009
                1880-5086
                November 2020
                15 May 2020
                : 67
                : 3
                : 323-331
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No.17 Panjiayuan Nanli, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021, China
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: stewen_wang@ 123456sina.com (LW); dr_wujx@ 123456126.com (JW)
                Article
                DN/JST.JSTAGE/jcbn/20-27 20-27
                10.3164/jcbn.20-27
                7705080
                33293775
                ab097852-77f9-4178-9a56-d321dd71a112
                Copyright © 2020 JCBN

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 5 March 2020
                : 10 March 2020
                Categories
                Original Article

                Biochemistry
                intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma,conut score,alcoholic,nutritional state
                Biochemistry
                intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, conut score, alcoholic, nutritional state

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