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      Preliminary Findings of mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine Safety in Pregnant Persons

      research-article
      , M.D. , , M.P.H., , Ph.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.D., , M.S.P.H., , M.D., , Ph.D., , Ph.D., , Ph.D., , M.P.H., , M.P.H., , M.P.H., , Ph.D., , M.S., , M.D., , M.D., , M.S., , M.P.H., , M.D. *
      The New England Journal of Medicine
      Massachusetts Medical Society
      Keyword part (code): 16Keyword part (keyword): Obstetrics/GynecologyKeyword part (code): 16_1Keyword part (keyword): Obstetrics/Gynecology GeneralKeyword part (code): 16_2Keyword part (keyword): Complications of Pregnancy , 16, Obstetrics/Gynecology, Keyword part (code): 16_1Keyword part (keyword): Obstetrics/Gynecology GeneralKeyword part (code): 16_2Keyword part (keyword): Complications of Pregnancy , 16_1, Obstetrics/Gynecology General, 16_2, Complications of Pregnancy, Keyword part (code): 18Keyword part (keyword): Infectious DiseaseKeyword part (code): 18_2Keyword part (keyword): Vaccines , 18, Infectious Disease, Keyword part (code): 18_2Keyword part (keyword): Vaccines, 18_2, Vaccines

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          Abstract

          Background

          Many pregnant persons in the United States are receiving messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccines, but data are limited on their safety in pregnancy.

          Methods

          From December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021, we used data from the “v-safe after vaccination health checker” surveillance system, the v-safe pregnancy registry, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to characterize the initial safety of mRNA Covid-19 vaccines in pregnant persons.

          Results

          A total of 35,691 v-safe participants 16 to 54 years of age identified as pregnant. Injection-site pain was reported more frequently among pregnant persons than among nonpregnant women, whereas headache, myalgia, chills, and fever were reported less frequently. Among 3958 participants enrolled in the v-safe pregnancy registry, 827 had a completed pregnancy, of which 115 (13.9%) resulted in a pregnancy loss and 712 (86.1%) resulted in a live birth (mostly among participants with vaccination in the third trimester). Adverse neonatal outcomes included preterm birth (in 9.4%) and small size for gestational age (in 3.2%); no neonatal deaths were reported. Although not directly comparable, calculated proportions of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in persons vaccinated against Covid-19 who had a completed pregnancy were similar to incidences reported in studies involving pregnant women that were conducted before the Covid-19 pandemic. Among 221 pregnancy-related adverse events reported to the VAERS, the most frequently reported event was spontaneous abortion (46 cases).

          Conclusions

          Preliminary findings did not show obvious safety signals among pregnant persons who received mRNA Covid-19 vaccines. However, more longitudinal follow-up, including follow-up of large numbers of women vaccinated earlier in pregnancy, is necessary to inform maternal, pregnancy, and infant outcomes.

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          Clinical manifestations, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy: living systematic review and meta-analysis

          Abstract Objective To determine the clinical manifestations, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnant and recently pregnant women with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). Design Living systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane database, WHO COVID-19 database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang databases from 1 December 2019 to 26 June 2020, along with preprint servers, social media, and reference lists. Study selection Cohort studies reporting the rates, clinical manifestations (symptoms, laboratory and radiological findings), risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnant and recently pregnant women with suspected or confirmed covid-19. Data extraction At least two researchers independently extracted the data and assessed study quality. Random effects meta-analysis was performed, with estimates pooled as odds ratios and proportions with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses will be updated regularly. Results 77 studies were included. Overall, 10% (95% confidence interval 7% to14%; 28 studies, 11 432 women) of pregnant and recently pregnant women attending or admitted to hospital for any reason were diagnosed as having suspected or confirmed covid-19. The most common clinical manifestations of covid-19 in pregnancy were fever (40%) and cough (39%). Compared with non-pregnant women of reproductive age, pregnant and recently pregnant women with covid-19 were less likely to report symptoms of fever (odds ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.85; I2=74%; 5 studies; 80 521 women) and myalgia (0.48, 0.45 to 0.51; I2=0%; 3 studies; 80 409 women) and were more likely to need admission to an intensive care unit (1.62, 1.33 to 1.96; I2=0%) and invasive ventilation (1.88, 1.36 to 2.60; I2=0%; 4 studies, 91 606 women). 73 pregnant women (0.1%, 26 studies, 11 580 women) with confirmed covid-19 died from any cause. Increased maternal age (1.78, 1.25 to 2.55; I2=9%; 4 studies; 1058 women), high body mass index (2.38, 1.67 to 3.39; I2=0%; 3 studies; 877 women), chronic hypertension (2.0, 1.14 to 3.48; I2=0%; 2 studies; 858 women), and pre-existing diabetes (2.51, 1.31 to 4.80; I2=12%; 2 studies; 858 women) were associated with severe covid-19 in pregnancy. Pre-existing maternal comorbidity was a risk factor for admission to an intensive care unit (4.21, 1.06 to 16.72; I2=0%; 2 studies; 320 women) and invasive ventilation (4.48, 1.40 to 14.37; I2=0%; 2 studies; 313 women). Spontaneous preterm birth rate was 6% (95% confidence interval 3% to 9%; I2=55%; 10 studies; 870 women) in women with covid-19. The odds of any preterm birth (3.01, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 7.85; I2=1%; 2 studies; 339 women) was high in pregnant women with covid-19 compared with those without the disease. A quarter of all neonates born to mothers with covid-19 were admitted to the neonatal unit (25%) and were at increased risk of admission (odds ratio 3.13, 95% confidence interval 2.05 to 4.78, I2=not estimable; 1 study, 1121 neonates) than those born to mothers without covid-19. Conclusion Pregnant and recently pregnant women are less likely to manifest covid-19 related symptoms of fever and myalgia than non-pregnant women of reproductive age and are potentially more likely to need intensive care treatment for covid-19. Pre-existing comorbidities, high maternal age, and high body mass index seem to be risk factors for severe covid-19. Preterm birth rates are high in pregnant women with covid-19 than in pregnant women without the disease. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42020178076. Readers’ note This article is a living systematic review that will be updated to reflect emerging evidence. Updates may occur for up to two years from the date of original publication.
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            Update: Characteristics of Symptomatic Women of Reproductive Age with Laboratory-Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 Infection by Pregnancy Status — United States, January 22–October 3, 2020

            Studies suggest that pregnant women might be at increased risk for severe illness associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ( 1 , 2 ). This report provides updated information about symptomatic women of reproductive age (15–44 years) with laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. During January 22–October 3, CDC received reports through national COVID-19 case surveillance or through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) of 1,300,938 women aged 15–44 years with laboratory results indicative of acute infection with SARS-CoV-2. Data on pregnancy status were available for 461,825 (35.5%) women with laboratory-confirmed infection, 409,462 (88.7%) of whom were symptomatic. Among symptomatic women, 23,434 (5.7%) were reported to be pregnant. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions, pregnant women were significantly more likely than were nonpregnant women to be admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) (10.5 versus 3.9 per 1,000 cases; adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.6–3.4), receive invasive ventilation (2.9 versus 1.1 per 1,000 cases; aRR = 2.9; 95% CI = 2.2–3.8), receive extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (0.7 versus 0.3 per 1,000 cases; aRR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.5–4.0), and die (1.5 versus 1.2 per 1,000 cases; aRR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2–2.4). Stratifying these analyses by age and race/ethnicity highlighted disparities in risk by subgroup. Although the absolute risks for severe outcomes for women were low, pregnant women were at increased risk for severe COVID-19–associated illness. To reduce the risk for severe illness and death from COVID-19, pregnant women should be counseled about the importance of seeking prompt medical care if they have symptoms and measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection should be strongly emphasized for pregnant women and their families during all medical encounters, including prenatal care visits. Understanding COVID-19–associated risks among pregnant women is important for prevention counseling and clinical care and treatment. Data on laboratory-confirmed and probable COVID-19 cases † were electronically reported to CDC using a standardized case report form § or NNDSS ¶ as part of COVID-19 surveillance efforts. Data are reported by health departments and can be updated by health departments as new information becomes available. This analysis included cases initially reported to CDC during January 22–October 3, 2020, with data updated as of October 28, 2020. Cases were limited to those in symptomatic women aged 15–44 years in the United States with laboratory-confirmed infection (detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in a clinical specimen using a molecular amplification detection test). Information on demographic characteristics, pregnancy status, underlying medical conditions, symptoms, and outcomes was collected. Pregnancy status was ascertained by a pregnancy field on the COVID-19 case report form or through records linked to the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET) optional COVID-19 module** , †† ( 3 ). CDC ascertained symptom status either through a reported symptom status variable (symptomatic, asymptomatic, or unknown) or based on the presence of at least one specific symptom on the case report form. Outcomes with missing data were assumed not to have occurred. Crude and adjusted RRs and 95% CIs were calculated using modified Poisson regression. Overall and stratified risk ratios were adjusted for age (in years), race/ethnicity, and presence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease (including hypertension), and chronic lung disease. SAS (version 9.4; SAS Institute) was used to conduct all analyses. This activity was reviewed by CDC and was conducted consistent with applicable federal law and CDC policy. §§ During January 22–October 3, a total of 5,003,041 laboratory-confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported to CDC as part of national COVID-19 case surveillance, including 1,300,938 (26.0%) cases in women aged 15–44 years. Data on pregnancy status were available for 461,825 (35.5%) women aged 15–44 years, 30,415 (6.6%) of whom were pregnant and 431,410 (93.4%) of whom were nonpregnant. Among all women aged 15–44 years with known pregnancy status, 409,462 (88.7%) were symptomatic, including 23,434 pregnant women, accounting for 5.7% of all symptomatic women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, and 386,028 nonpregnant women. Pregnant women were more frequently Hispanic/Latina (Hispanic) (29.7%) and less frequently non-Hispanic White (White) (23.5%) compared with nonpregnant women (22.6% Hispanic and 31.7% White). Among all women, cough, headache, muscle aches, and fever were the most frequently reported signs and symptoms; most symptoms were reported less frequently by pregnant women than by nonpregnant women (Table 1). TABLE 1 Demographic characteristics, signs and symptoms, and underlying medical conditions among symptomatic women of reproductive age with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (N = 409,462),* ,† by pregnancy status — United States, January 22–October 3, 2020 Characteristic No. (%) of symptomatic women Pregnant (n = 23,434) Nonpregnant (n = 386,028) Total (N = 409,462) Age group, yrs 15–24 6,463 (27.6) 133,032 (34.5) 139,495 (34.1) 25–34 12,951 (55.3) 131,835 (34.2) 144,786 (35.4) 35–44 4,020 (17.2) 121,161 (31.4) 125,181 (30.6) Race/Ethnicity § Hispanic or Latina, any race 6,962 (29.7) 85,618 (22.2) 92,580 (22.6) AI/AN, non-Hispanic 113 (0.5) 1,652 (0.4) 1,765 (0.4) Asian, non-Hispanic 560 (2.4) 8,605 (2.2) 9,165 (2.2) Black, non-Hispanic 3,387 (14.5) 54,185 (14.0) 57,572 (14.1) NHPI, non-Hispanic 119 (0.5) 1,526 (0.4) 1,645 (0.4) White, non-Hispanic 5,508 (23.5) 124,305 (32.2) 129,813 (31.7) Multiple or other race, non-Hispanic 726 (3.1) 12,341 (3.2) 13,067 (3.2) Signs and symptoms Known status of individual signs and symptoms¶ 10,404 174,198 184,602 Cough 5,230 (50.3) 89,422 (51.3) 94,652 (51.3) Fever** 3,328 (32.0) 68,536 (39.3) 71,864 (38.9) Muscle aches 3,818 (36.7) 78,725 (45.2) 82,543 (44.7) Chills 2,537 (24.4) 50,836 (29.2) 53,373 (28.9) Headache 4,447 (42.7) 95,713 (54.9) 100,160 (54.3) Shortness of breath 2,692 (25.9) 43,234 (24.8) 45,926 (24.9) Sore throat 2,955 (28.4) 60,218 (34.6) 63,173 (34.2) Diarrhea 1,479 (14.2) 38,165 (21.9) 39,644 (21.5) Nausea or vomiting 2,052 (19.7) 28,999 (16.6) 31,051 (16.8) Abdominal pain 870 (8.4) 16,123 (9.3) 16,993 (9.2) Runny nose 1,328 (12.8) 22,750 (13.1) 24,078 (13.0) New loss of taste or smell†† 2,234 (21.5) 43,256 (24.8) 45,490 (24.6) Fatigue 1,404 (13.5) 29,788 (17.1) 31,192 (16.9) Wheezing 172 (1.7) 3,743 (2.1) 3,915 (2.1) Chest pain 369 (3.5) 7,079 (4.1) 7,448 (4.0) Underlying medical conditions Known underlying medical condition status§§ 7,795 160,065 167,860 Diabetes mellitus 427 (5.5) 6,119 (3.8) 6,546 (3.9) Cardiovascular disease 304 (3.9) 7,703 (4.8) 8,007 (4.8) Chronic lung disease 506 (6.5) 9,185 (5.7) 9,691 (5.8) Chronic renal disease 18 (0.2) 680 (0.4) 698 (0.4) Chronic liver disease 17 (0.2) 350 (0.2) 367 (0.2) Immunocompromised condition 124 (1.6) 2,496 (1.6) 2,620 (1.6) Neurologic disorder, neurodevelopmental disorder, or intellectual disability 44 (0.6) 1,097 (0.7) 1,141 (0.7) Psychiatric disorder 62 (0.8) 1,139 (0.7) 1,201 (0.7) Autoimmune disorder 26 (0.3) 515 (0.3) 541 (0.3) Severe obesity¶¶ 174 (2.2) 1,810 (1.1) 1,984 (1.2) Abbreviations: AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native; NHPI = Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. * Women with known pregnancy status, representing 52% of 783,072 total cases among symptomatic women aged 15–44 years. † All statistical comparisons were significant at α 100.4°F [38°C] or subjective), cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, difficulty breathing, chills, rigors, myalgia, rhinorrhea, sore throat, chest pain, nausea or vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, fatigue, diarrhea (three or more loose stools in a 24-hour period), new olfactory or taste disorder, or other symptom not otherwise specified on the form. ** Patients were included if they had information for either measured or subjective fever variables and were considered to have a fever if “yes” was indicated for either variable. †† New olfactory and taste disorder has only been included on the CDC’s Human Infection with 2019 Novel Coronavirus Case Report Form since May 5, 2020. Therefore, data might be underreported for this symptom. §§ Status was classified as “known” if any of the following conditions were noted as present or absent on the CDC’s Human Infection with 2019 Novel Coronavirus Case Report Form: diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (including hypertension), severe obesity (body mass index ≥40 kg/m2), chronic renal disease, chronic liver disease, chronic lung disease, immunosuppressive condition, autoimmune condition, neurologic condition (including neurodevelopmental, intellectual, physical, visual, or hearing impairment), psychological/psychiatric condition, and other underlying medical condition not otherwise specified. ¶¶ Defined as body mass index ≥40 kg/m2. Compared with nonpregnant women, pregnant women more frequently were admitted to an ICU (10.5 versus 3.9 per 1,000 cases; aRR = 3.0; 95% CI = 2.6–3.4), received invasive ventilation (2.9 versus 1.1 per 1,000 cases; aRR = 2.9; 95% CI = 2.2–3.8) and received ECMO (0.7 versus 0.3 per 1,000 cases; aRR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.5–4.0). Thirty-four deaths (1.5 per 1,000 cases) were reported among 23,434 symptomatic pregnant women, and 447 (1.2 per 1,000 cases) were reported among 386,028 nonpregnant women, reflecting a 70% increased risk for death associated with pregnancy (aRR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2–2.4). Irrespective of pregnancy status, ICU admissions, receipt of invasive ventilation, and death occurred more often among women aged 35–44 years than among those aged 15–24 years (Table 2). Whereas non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) women made up 14.1% of women included in this analysis, they represented 176 (36.6%) deaths overall, including nine of 34 (26.5%) deaths among pregnant women and 167 of 447 (37.4%) deaths among nonpregnant women. TABLE 2 Intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, receipt of invasive ventilation, receipt of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and deaths among symptomatic women of reproductive age with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 (N = 409,462), by pregnancy status, age, race/ethnicity, and underlying health conditions — United States, January 22–October 3, 2020 Outcome*/Characteristic No. (per 1,000 cases) of symptomatic women Risk ratio (95% CI) Pregnant (n = 23,434) Nonpregnant (n = 386,028) Crude† Adjusted†,§ ICU admission¶ All 245 (10.5) 1,492 (3.9) 2.7 (2.4–3.1) 3.0 (2.6–3.4) Age group, yrs 15–24 49 (7.6) 244 (1.8) 4.1 (3.0–5.6) 3.9 (2.8–5.3) 25–34 118 (9.1) 467 (3.5) 2.6 (2.1–3.1) 2.4 (2.0–3.0) 35–44 78 (19.4) 781 (6.4) 3.0 (2.4–3.8) 3.2 (2.5–4.0) Race/Ethnicity Hispanic or Latina 89 (12.8) 429 (5.0) 2.6 (2.0–3.2) 2.8 (2.2–3.5) AI/AN, non-Hispanic 0 (0) 13 (7.9) NA NA Asian, non-Hispanic 20 (35.7) 52 (6.0) 5.9 (3.6–9.8) 6.6 (4.0–11.0) Black, non-Hispanic 46 (13.6) 334 (6.2) 2.2 (1.6–3.0) 2.8 (2.0–3.8) NHPI, non-Hispanic 5 (42.0) 22 (14.4) 2.9 (1.1–7.6) 3.7 (1.3–10.1) White, non-Hispanic 31 (5.6) 348 (2.8) 2.0 (1.4–2.9) 2.3 (1.6–3.3) Multiple or other race, non-Hispanic 8 (11.0) 37 (3.0) 3.7 (1.7–7.9) 4.1 (1.9–8.9) Unknown/Not reported 46 (7.6) 257 (2.6) 2.9 (2.1–3.9) 3.4 (2.5–4.7) Underlying health conditions Diabetes 25 (58.5) 274 (44.8) 1.3 (0.9–1.9) 1.5 (1.0–2.2) CVD** 13 (42.8) 247 (32.1) 1.3 (0.8–2.3) 1.5 (0.9–2.6) Chronic lung disease 15 (29.6) 179 (19.5) 1.5 (0.9–2.6) 1.7 (1.0–2.8) Invasive ventilation†† All 67 (2.9) 412 (1.1) 2.7 (2.1–3.5) 2.9 (2.2–3.8) Age group, yrs 15–24 11 (1.7) 68 (0.5) 3.3 (1.8–6.3) 3.0 (1.6–5.7) §§ 25–34 30 (2.3) 123 (0.9) 2.5 (1.7–3.7) 2.5 (1.6–3.7) §§ 35–44 26 (6.5) 221 (1.8) 3.5 (2.4–5.3) 3.6 (2.4–5.4) Race/Ethnicity Hispanic or Latina 33 (4.7) 143 (1.7) 2.8 (1.9–4.1) 3.0 (2.1–4.5) AI/AN, non-Hispanic 0 (0) 5 (3.0) NA NA Asian, non-Hispanic 4 (7.1) 19 (2.2) NA NA Black, non-Hispanic 10 (3) 86 (1.6) 1.9 (1.0–3.6) 2.5 (1.3–4.9) NHPI, non-Hispanic 4 (33.6) 10 (6.6) NA NA White, non-Hispanic 12 (2.2) 102 (0.8) 2.7 (1.5–4.8) 3.0 (1.7–5.6) Multiple or other race, non-Hispanic 0 (0) 8 (0.6) NA NA Unknown/Not reported 4 (0.7) 39 (0.4) NA NA Underlying health conditions Diabetes 10 (23.4) 98 (16.0) 1.5 (0.8–2.8) 1.7 (0.9–3.3) CVD** 6 (19.7) 82 (10.6) 1.9 (0.8–4.2) 1.9 (0.8–4.5) ¶¶ Chronic lung disease 4 (7.9) 50 (5.4) NA NA ECMO*** All 17 (0.7) 120 (0.3) 2.3 (1.4–3.9) 2.4 (1.5–4.0) Age group,yrs 15–24 6 (0.9) 31 (0.2) 4.0 (1.7–9.5) NA††† 25–34 7 (0.5) 35 (0.3) 2.0 (0.9–4.6) 2.0 (0.9–4.4) §§ 35–44 4 (1.0) 54 (0.4) NA NA Race/Ethnicity Hispanic or Latina 6 (0.9) 35 (0.4) 2.1 (0.9–5.0) 2.4 (1.0–5.9) AI/AN, non-Hispanic 0 (0) 1 (0.6) NA NA Asian, non-Hispanic 0 (0) 1 (0.1) NA NA Black, non-Hispanic 5 (1.5) 30 (0.6) 2.7 (1.0–6.9) 2.9 (1.1–7.3) NHPI, non-Hispanic 0 (0) 2 (1.3) NA NA White, non-Hispanic 4 (0.7) 29 (0.2) NA NA Multiple or other race, non-Hispanic 0 (0) 3 (0.2) NA NA Unknown/Not reported 2 (0.3) 19 (0.2) NA NA Underlying health conditions Diabetes 1 (2.3) 13 (2.1) NA NA CVD** 1 (3.3) 20 (2.6) NA NA Chronic lung disease 1 (2.0) 20 (2.2) NA NA Death§§§ All 34 (1.5) 447 (1.2) 1.3 (0.9–1.8) 1.7 (1.2–2.4) Age group, yrs 15–24 2 (0.3) 40 (0.3) NA NA 25–34 15 (1.2) 125 (0.9) 1.2 (0.7–2.1) 1.2 (0.7–2.1) 35–44 17 (4.2) 282 (2.3) 1.8 (1.1–3.0) 2.0 (1.2–3.2) Race/Ethnicity Hispanic or Latina 14 (2.0) 87 (1.0) 2.0 (1.1–3.5) 2.4 (1.3–4.3) AI/AN, non-Hispanic 0 (0) 5 (3.0) NA NA Asian, non-Hispanic 1 (1.8) 11 (1.3) NA NA Black, non-Hispanic 9 (2.7) 167 (3.1) 0.9 (0.4–1.7) 1.4 (0.7–2.7) NHPI, non-Hispanic 2 (16.8) 6 (3.9) NA NA White, non-Hispanic 3 (0.5) 83 (0.7) NA NA Multiple or other race, non-Hispanic 0 (0) 12 (1.0) NA NA Unknown/Not reported 5 (0.8) 76 (0.8) 1.1 (0.4–2.6) 1.4 (0.6–3.6) Underlying health conditions Diabetes 6 (14.1) 78 (12.7) 1.1 (0.5–2.5) 1.5 (0.6–3.5) ¶¶¶ CVD** 7 (23.0) 89 (11.6) 2.0 (0.9–4.3) 2.2 (1.0–4.8)**** Chronic lung disease 1 (2.0) 37 (4.0) NA NA Abbreviations: AI/AN = American Indian/Alaska Native; CI = confidence interval; CVD = cardiovascular disease; NA = not applicable; NHPI = Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. * Percentages calculated among total in pregnancy status group. † Crude and adjusted risk ratios were not calculated for cell sizes <5. § Adjusted for age (continuous variable, in years), categorical race/ethnicity variable, and dichotomous indicators for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic lung disease. ¶ A total of 17,007 (72.6%) symptomatic pregnant women and 291,539 (75.5%) symptomatic nonpregnant women were missing information on ICU admission status; however, while hospital admission status was not separately analyzed, hospitalization status was missing for 2,393 (10.2%) symptomatic pregnant women and 35,624 (9.2%) of symptomatic nonpregnant women, and no hospital admission was reported for 16,672 (71.1%) pregnant and 337,414 (87.4%) nonpregnant women. Therefore, in the absence of reported hospital admissions, women with missing ICU admission information were assumed to have not been admitted to the ICU. ** Cardiovascular disease also accounts for presence of hypertension. †† A total of 17,903 (76.4%) pregnant women and 299,413 (77.6%) nonpregnant women were missing information regarding receipt of invasive ventilation and were assumed to have not received it. §§ Adjusted for the presence of diabetes, CVD, and chronic lung disease only, and removed race/ethnicity from adjustment set because of model convergence issues . ¶¶ Adjusted for the presence of diabetes and chronic lung disease and age as a continuous covariate only and removed race/ethnicity from adjustment set because of model convergence issues. *** A total of 18,246 (77.9%) pregnant women and 298,608 (77.4%) nonpregnant women were missing information for receipt of ECMO and were assumed to have not received ECMO. ††† Model failed to converge even after adjustment for a reduced set of covariates. §§§ A total of 5,152 (22.0%) pregnant women and 66,346 (17.2%) nonpregnant women were missing information on death and were assumed to have survived. ¶¶¶ Adjusted for the presence of CVD and chronic lung disease and age as a continuous variable. **** Adjusted for presence of diabetes and chronic lung disease and age as a continuous variable. Increased risk for ICU admission among pregnant women was observed for all strata but was particularly notable among non-Hispanic Asian (Asian) women (aRR = 6.6; 95% CI = 4.0–11.0) and non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander women (aRR = 3.7; 95% CI = 1.3–10.1). Risk for receiving invasive ventilation among pregnant women aged 15–24 years was 3.0 times that of nonpregnant women (95% CI = 1.6–5.7), and among pregnant women aged 35–44 years was 3.6 times that of nonpregnant women (95% CI = 2.4–5.4). In addition, among Hispanic women, pregnancy was associated with 2.4 times the risk for death (95% CI = 1.3-4.3) (Table 2). Discussion Although the absolute risks for severe COVID-19–associated outcomes among women were low, pregnant women were at significantly higher risk for severe outcomes compared with nonpregnant women. This finding might be related to physiologic changes in pregnancy, including increased heart rate and oxygen consumption, decreased lung capacity, a shift away from cell-mediated immunity, and increased risk for thromboembolic disease ( 4 , 5 ). Compared with the initial report of these data ( 1 ), in which increased risk for ICU admissions and invasive ventilation among pregnant women was reported, this analysis includes nearly five times the number of symptomatic women and a higher proportion of women with known pregnancy status (36% versus 28%). Further, to avoid including pregnant women who were tested as part of asymptomatic screening practices at the delivery hospitalization, this analysis was limited to symptomatic women. In this analysis 5.7% of symptomatic women aged 15–44 years with COVID-19 were pregnant, corresponding to the anticipated proportion of 5% of the population at any point in time. ¶¶ , *** Whereas increased risk for severe disease related to pregnancy was apparent in nearly all stratified analyses, pregnant women aged 35–44 years with COVID-19 were nearly four times as likely to require invasive ventilation and twice as likely to die than were nonpregnant women of the same age. Among symptomatic pregnant women with COVID-19 for whom race/ethnicity was reported, 30% were Hispanic and 24% were White, differing from the overall reported racial/ethnic distribution of women who gave birth in 2019 (24% Hispanic and 51% White). ††† Pregnant Asian and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander women appeared to be at disproportionately greater risk for ICU admission. Hispanic pregnant women of any race not only experienced a disproportionate risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection but also a higher risk for death compared with nonpregnant Hispanic women. Regardless of pregnancy status, non-Hispanic Black women experienced a disproportionate number of deaths relative to their distribution among reported cases. This analysis highlights racial and ethnic disparities in both risk for infection and disease severity among pregnant women, indicating a need to address potential drivers of risk in these populations. The findings in this report are subject to at least three limitations. First, national case surveillance data for COVID-19 are voluntarily reported to CDC and rely on health care providers and jurisdictional public health agencies to share information for patients who meet standard case definitions. The mechanism used to report cases and the capacity to investigate cases varies across jurisdictions. §§§ Thus, case information is limited or unavailable for a portion of detected COVID-19 cases, and reported case data might be updated at any time. This analysis was restricted to women with known age; however, pregnancy status was missing for over one half (64.5%) of reported cases, and among those with known pregnancy status, data on race/ethnicity were missing for approximately 25% of cases, and information on symptoms and underlying conditions was missing for approximately one half. Second, when estimating the proportion of cases with severe outcomes, the observational data collected through passive surveillance might be subject to reporting bias, wherein preferential ascertainment of severe cases is likely ( 6 , 7 ); therefore, the frequency of reported outcomes incorporates a denominator of all cases as a conservative estimate. Finally, severe outcomes might require additional time to be ascertained. To account for this, a time lag was incorporated, such that data reported as of October 28, 2020, were used for cases reported as of October 3. This analysis supports previous findings that pregnancy is associated with increased risk for ICU admission and receipt of invasive ventilation among women of reproductive age with COVID-19 ( 1 , 2 ). In the current report, an increased risk for receiving ECMO and death was also observed, which are two additional important markers of COVID-19 severity that support previous findings. In comparison to influenza, a recent meta-analysis found no increased risk for ICU admission or death among pregnant women with seasonal influenza ( 8 ). However, data from previous influenza pandemics, including 2009 H1N1, have shown that pregnant women are at increased risk for severe outcomes including death and the absolute risks for severe outcomes were higher than in this study of COVID-19 during pregnancy ( 9 ). Longitudinal surveillance and cohort studies among pregnant women with COVID-19, including information about pregnancy outcomes, are necessary to understand the full spectrum of maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with COVID-19 in pregnancy. CDC, in collaboration with health departments, has adapted SET-NET to collect pregnancy-related information and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes among women with COVID-19 during pregnancy ¶¶¶ ( 3 ). Understanding the risk posed by SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women can inform clinical practice, risk communication, and medical countermeasure allocation. Pregnant women should be informed of their risk for severe COVID-19–associated illness and the warning signs of severe COVID-19.**** To minimize the risk for acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection, pregnant women should limit unnecessary interactions with persons who might have been exposed to or are infected with SARS-CoV-2, including those within their household, †††† as much as possible. §§§§ When going out or interacting with others, pregnant women should wear a mask, social distance, avoid persons who are not wearing a mask, and frequently wash their hands. In addition, pregnant women should take measures to ensure their general health, including staying up to date with annual influenza vaccination and prenatal care. Providers who care for pregnant women should be familiar with guidelines for medical management of COVID-19, including considerations for management of COVID-19 in pregnancy. ¶¶¶¶ , ***** Additional data from surveillance and cohort studies on COVID-19 severity during pregnancy are necessary to inform messaging and patient counseling. Summary What is already known about this topic? Limited information suggests that pregnant women with COVID-19 might be at increased risk for severe illness compared with nonpregnant women. What is added by this report? In an analysis of approximately 400,000 women aged 15–44 years with symptomatic COVID-19, intensive care unit admission, invasive ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and death were more likely in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women. What are the implications for public health practice? Pregnant women should be counseled about the risk for severe COVID-19–associated illness including death; measures to prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2 should be emphasized for pregnant women and their families. These findings can inform clinical practice, risk communication, and medical countermeasure allocation.
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              The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices’ Interim Recommendation for Use of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine — United States, December 2020

              On December 11, 2020, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 (BNT162b2) vaccine (Pfizer, Inc; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), a lipid nanoparticle-formulated, nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccine encoding the prefusion spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ( 1 ). Vaccination with the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine consists of 2 doses (30 μg, 0.3 mL each) administered intramuscularly, 3 weeks apart. On December 12, 2020, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued an interim recommendation* for use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in persons aged ≥16 years for the prevention of COVID-19. To guide its deliberations regarding the vaccine, ACIP employed the Evidence to Recommendation (EtR) Framework, † using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. § The recommendation for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine should be implemented in conjunction with ACIP’s interim recommendation for allocating initial supplies of COVID-19 vaccines ( 2 ). The ACIP recommendation for the use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine under EUA is interim and will be updated as additional information becomes available. Since June 2020, ACIP has convened nine public meetings to review data on the epidemiology of COVID-19 and the potential use of COVID-19 vaccines, including the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine ( 3 ). Within the EtR Framework, ACIP considered the importance of the public health problem of COVID-19, as well as issues of resource use, benefits and harms, patients’ values and preferences, acceptability, feasibility, and equity for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. To inform the EtR Framework, the COVID-19 Vaccines Work Group, comprising experts in infectious disease, vaccinology, vaccine safety, public health, and ethics, held 27 meetings to review COVID-19 surveillance data, evidence for vaccine efficacy and safety, and implementation considerations for COVID-19 vaccines, including the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. After a systematic review of the literature, the Work Group used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence for outcomes related to the vaccine, rated on a scale of 1 (high certainty) to 4 (very low certainty) ( 4 ). Work Group conclusions regarding the evidence for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine were presented to ACIP at public meetings. The body of evidence for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine was primarily informed by one large, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase II/III clinical trial that enrolled >43,000 participants (median age = 52 years, range = 16–91 years) ( 5 , 6 ). Interim findings from this clinical trial, using data from participants with a median of 2 months of follow-up, indicate that the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine was 95.0% effective (95% confidence interval = 90.3%–97.6%) in preventing symptomatic laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in persons without evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Consistent high efficacy (≥92%) was observed across age, sex, race, and ethnicity categories and among persons with underlying medical conditions as well as among participants with evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although numbers of observed hospitalizations and deaths were low, the available data were consistent with reduced risk for these severe outcomes among vaccinated persons compared with that among placebo recipients. Among vaccine recipients, reactogenicity symptoms, defined as solicited local injection site or systemic reactions during the 7 days after vaccination, were frequent and mostly mild to moderate. Systemic adverse reactions were more commonly reported after the second dose than after the first dose and were generally more frequent and severe in persons aged 18–55 years than in those aged >55 years. Systemic adverse reactions had a median onset of 1–2 days after vaccine receipt and resolved in a median of 1 day. Severe local and systemic adverse reactions (grade ≥3, defined as interfering with daily activity) occurred more commonly in vaccine recipients than in placebo recipients. Among vaccine recipients, 8.8% reported any grade ≥3 reaction; the most common symptoms were fatigue (4.2%), headache (2.4%), muscle pain (1.8%), chills (1.7%), and injection site pain (1.4%). Generally, grade ≥3 reactions were more commonly reported after the second dose than after the first dose and were less prevalent in older than in younger participants. Serious adverse events ¶ were observed in a similar proportion of vaccine (0.6%) and placebo (0.5%) recipients and encompassed medical events occurring at a frequency similar to that within the general population ( 6 ). No specific safety concerns were identified in subgroup analyses by age, race, ethnicity, underlying medical conditions, or previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. A detailed summary of safety data, including information on reactogenicity, is available at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/info-by-manufacturer/pfizer/reactogenicity.html. From the GRADE evidence assessment, the level of certainty for the benefits of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine was type 1 (high certainty) for the prevention of symptomatic COVID-19. Evidence was type 3 (low certainty) for the estimate of prevention of COVID-19–associated hospitalization and type 4 (very low certainty) for the estimate of prevention of death. Data on hospitalizations and deaths are limited at this time, but a vaccine that effectively prevents symptomatic infection is expected to also prevent hospitalizations and deaths. Regarding potential harms after vaccination, evidence was type 2 (moderate certainty) for serious adverse events and type 1 (high certainty) for reactogenicity. No data were available to assess the efficacy for prevention of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Data reviewed within the EtR Framework supported the use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. ACIP determined that COVID-19 is a major public health problem and that use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine is a reasonable and efficient allocation of resources. Whereas there might be uncertainty in how all populations value the vaccine, it was determined that for most populations, the desirable effects outweigh the undesirable effects. The vaccine is probably acceptable to implementation stakeholders and feasible to implement in spite of difficult ultracold-chain storage and requirements for handling and administration. These requirements could limit the availability of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine to some populations thereby negatively impacting health equity. Therefore, efforts should be made to overcome these challenges and advance health equity. The GRADE evidence profile and EtR supporting evidence are available at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/recs/grade/covid-19-pfizer-biontech-vaccine.html and https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/recs/grade/covid-19-pfizer-biontech-etr.html. Before vaccination, the EUA Fact Sheet should be provided to recipients and caregivers. Providers should counsel Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine recipients about expected systemic and local reactogenicity. Additional clinical considerations, including details of administration and use in special populations (e.g., persons who are pregnant or immunocompromised or who have severe allergies) are available at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/info-by-manufacturer/pfizer/clinical-considerations.html Additional studies of safety and effectiveness are planned after authorization and will be important to inform future ACIP recommendations as well as increase public confidence in the COVID-19 vaccination program. The interim recommendation and clinical considerations are based on use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine under an EUA and might change as more evidence becomes available. ACIP will continue to review additional data as they become available; updates to recommendations or clinical considerations will be posted on the ACIP website (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/vacc-specific/covid-19.html). Reporting of Vaccine Adverse Events Adverse events that occur in a recipient after receipt of COVID-19 vaccine should be reported to the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS). FDA requires that vaccination providers report vaccination administration errors, serious adverse events, cases of multisystem inflammatory syndrome, and cases of COVID-19 that result in hospitalization or death after administration of COVID-19 vaccine under EUA. Reporting is encouraged for any clinically significant adverse event, whether or not it is clear that a vaccine caused the adverse event. Information on how to submit a report to VAERS is available at https://vaers.hhs.gov/index.html or 1-800-822-7967. In addition, CDC has developed a new, voluntary smartphone-based tool, v-safe, that uses text messaging and web surveys to provide near real-time health check-ins after patients receive COVID-19 vaccination. The CDC/v-safe call center follows up on reports to v-safe that indicate a medically significant health impact to collect additional information for completion of a VAERS report. Information on v-safe is available at https://www.cdc.gov/vsafe. Summary What is already known about this topic? On December 11, 2020, the Food and Drug Administration issued an Emergency Use Authorization for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. What is added by this report? On December 12, 2020, after an explicit, evidence-based review of all available data, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued an interim recommendation for use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in persons aged ≥16 years for the prevention of COVID-19. What are the implications for public health practice? The recommendation for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine should be implemented in conjunction with ACIP’s interim recommendation for allocating initial supplies of COVID-19 vaccines.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                N Engl J Med
                N Engl J Med
                nejm
                The New England Journal of Medicine
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                21 April 2021
                : NEJMoa2104983
                Affiliations
                From the Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion (T.T.S., T.R.M., P.L. Moro, L.P., P.L. Marquez, C.K.O., C.L., B.C.Z., J.M.G.), and the Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (S.W.M.), National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, the Division of Birth Defects and Infant Disorders, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (S.Y.K., V.K.B., C.J.G., D.M.M.-D.), the Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (T.O., K.T.C., S.R.E., A.N.S.), the World Trade Center Health Program, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (R.L.), and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (K.T.C.) — all at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta; and the Division of Epidemiology, Office of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD (M.A., A.M.-J.).
                Author notes
                Address reprint requests to Dr. Shimabukuro at the Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd., Atlanta, GA 30329, or at tshimabukuro@ 123456cdc.gov .
                [*]

                The members of the CDC v-safe COVID-19 Pregnancy Registry Team are listed in the Supplementary Appendix, available at NEJM.org.

                Article
                NJ202104213842405
                10.1056/NEJMoa2104983
                8117969
                33882218
                ab407457-24db-40a9-ae41-597055cdf7bc
                Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.

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