Using a micro-radioimmunoassay, cAMP was measured in single, isolated S2 proximal straight tubules dissected from rabbit kidneys to investigate the effects of adrenergic agonists on adenylate cyclase activity. The baseline activity of adenylate cyclase was low and unaffected by either the α<sub>2</sub> agonist clonidine, the β agonist isoprenaline (in the absence or presence of 1 µ M forskolin) or 1 µ M forskolin. Adenylate cyclase activity was markedly stimulated by 20 µ M forskolin, an effect which was inhibited by 1 µ M clonidine. The inhibition by clonidine was not apparent in the presence of the α<sub>2</sub> antagonist yohimbine. These results confirm the inability of isoprenaline to stimulate adenylate cyclase in the rabbit proximal tubule and demonstrate the coupling of α<sub>2</sub> receptors, in an inhibitory fashion, to adenylate cyclase. The inhibitory action of the α<sub>2</sub>-receptor agonist was independent of other hormone activity in the renal proximal tubule.