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      Properties and Functions of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Gag Domains in Virion Assembly and Budding

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          Abstract

          Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is an important cat pathogen worldwide whose biological and pathophysiological properties resemble those of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Therefore, the study of FIV not only benefits its natural host but is also useful for the development of antiviral strategies directed against HIV-1 infections in humans. FIV assembly results from the multimerization of a single but complex viral polypeptide, the Gag precursor. In this review, we will first give an overview of the current knowledge of the proteins encoded by the FIV pol, env, rev, vif, and orf-A genes, and then we will describe and discuss in detail the critical roles that each of the FIV Gag domains plays in virion morphogenesis. Since retroviral assembly is an attractive target for therapeutic interventions, gaining a better understanding of this process is highly desirable.

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          Most cited references 102

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          Tetherin inhibits retrovirus release and is antagonized by HIV-1 Vpu.

          Human cells possess an antiviral activity that inhibits the release of retrovirus particles, and other enveloped virus particles, and is antagonized by the HIV-1 accessory protein, Vpu. This antiviral activity can be constitutively expressed or induced by interferon-alpha, and it consists of protein-based tethers, which we term 'tetherins', that cause retention of fully formed virions on infected cell surfaces. Using deductive constraints and gene expression analyses, we identify CD317 (also called BST2 or HM1.24), a membrane protein of previously unknown function, as a tetherin. Specifically, CD317 expression correlated with, and induced, a requirement for Vpu during HIV-1 and murine leukaemia virus particle release. Furthermore, in cells where HIV-1 virion release requires Vpu expression, depletion of CD317 abolished this requirement. CD317 caused retention of virions on cell surfaces and, after endocytosis, in CD317-positive compartments. Vpu co-localized with CD317 and inhibited these effects. Inhibition of Vpu function and consequent mobilization of tetherin's antiviral activity is a potential therapeutic strategy in HIV/AIDS.
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            Broad-spectrum inhibition of retroviral and filoviral particle release by tetherin.

            The expression of many putative antiviral genes is upregulated when cells encounter type I interferon (IFN), but the actual mechanisms by which many IFN-induced gene products inhibit virus replication are poorly understood. A recently identified IFN-induced antiretroviral protein, termed tetherin (previously known as BST-2 or CD317), blocks the release of nascent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles from infected cells, and an HIV-1 accessory protein, Vpu, acts as a viral antagonist of tetherin. Here, we show that tetherin is capable of blocking not only the release of HIV-1 particles but also the release of particles assembled using the major structural proteins of a variety of prototype retroviruses, including members of the alpharetrovirus, betaretrovirus, deltaretrovirus, lentivirus, and spumaretrovirus families. Moreover, we show that the release of particles assembled using filovirus matrix proteins from Marburg virus and Ebola virus is also sensitive to inhibition by tetherin. These findings indicate that tetherin is a broadly specific inhibitor of enveloped particle release, and therefore, inhibition is unlikely to require specific interactions with viral proteins. Nonetheless, tetherin colocalized with nascent virus-like particles generated by several retroviral and filoviral structural proteins, indicating that it is present at, or recruited to, sites of particle assembly. Overall, tetherin is potentially active against many enveloped viruses and likely to be an important component of the antiviral innate immune defense.
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              Isolation of a T-lymphotropic virus from domestic cats with an immunodeficiency-like syndrome.

              A highly T-lymphotropic virus was isolated from cats in a cattery in which all the animals were seronegative for feline leukemia virus. A number of cats in one pen had died and several had an immunodeficiency-like syndrome. Only 1 of 18 normal cats in the cattery showed serologic evidence of infection with this new virus, whereas 10 of 25 cats with signs of ill health were seropositive for the virus. Tentatively designated feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus, this new feline retrovirus appears to be antigenically distinct from human immunodeficiency virus. There is no evidence for cat-to-human transmission of the agent. Kittens experimentally infected by way of blood or plasma from naturally infected animals developed generalized lymphadenopathy several weeks later, became transiently febrile and leukopenic, and continued to show a generalized lymphadenopathy 5 months after infection.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Viruses
                Viruses
                viruses
                Viruses
                MDPI
                1999-4915
                16 May 2018
                May 2018
                : 10
                : 5
                Affiliations
                Laboratorio de Virología, CONICET-Universidad de Belgrano, Villanueva 1324, Buenos Aires C1426BMJ, Argentina; silvia.gonzalez@ 123456comunidad.ub.edu.ar
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: jose.affranchino@ 123456comunidad.ub.edu.ar ; Tel.: +54-11-4511-4701
                Article
                viruses-10-00261
                10.3390/v10050261
                5977254
                29772651
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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