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      Forest Insect Biosecurity: Processes, Patterns, Predictions, Pitfalls

      1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5
      Annual Review of Entomology
      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          The economic and environmental threats posed by non-native forest insects are ever increasing with the continuing globalization of trade and travel; thus, the need for mitigation through effective biosecurity is greater than ever. However, despite decades of research and implementation of preborder, border, and postborder preventative measures, insect invasions continue to occur, with no evidence of saturation, and are even predicted to accelerate. In this article, we review biosecurity measures used to mitigate the arrival, establishment, spread, and impacts of non-native forest insects and possible impediments to the successful implementation of these measures. Biosecurity successes are likely under-recognized because they are difficult to detect and quantify, whereas failures are more evident in the continued establishment of additional non-native species. There are limitations in existing biosecurity systems at global and country scales (for example, inspecting all imports is impossible, no phytosanitary measures are perfect, knownunknowns cannot be regulated against, and noncompliance is an ongoing problem). Biosecurity should be a shared responsibility across countries, governments, stakeholders, and individuals.

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          No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide

          Although research on human-mediated exchanges of species has substantially intensified during the last centuries, we know surprisingly little about temporal dynamics of alien species accumulations across regions and taxa. Using a novel database of 45,813 first records of 16,926 established alien species, we show that the annual rate of first records worldwide has increased during the last 200 years, with 37% of all first records reported most recently (1970–2014). Inter-continental and inter-taxonomic variation can be largely attributed to the diaspora of European settlers in the nineteenth century and to the acceleration in trade in the twentieth century. For all taxonomic groups, the increase in numbers of alien species does not show any sign of saturation and most taxa even show increases in the rate of first records over time. This highlights that past efforts to mitigate invasions have not been effective enough to keep up with increasing globalization.
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            Trade, transport and trouble: managing invasive species pathways in an era of globalization

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              High and rising economic costs of biological invasions worldwide

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Entomology
                Annu. Rev. Entomol.
                Annual Reviews
                0066-4170
                1545-4487
                January 23 2023
                January 23 2023
                : 68
                : 1
                : 211-229
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Forest Research Institute, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, Australia;
                [2 ]US Forest Service Northern Research Station, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA;
                [3 ]Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic
                [4 ]Forest Health and Biotic Interactions, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland;
                [5 ]Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and the Environment, University of Padova, Italy;
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-ento-120220-010854
                36198403
                ab4d6cdf-b081-4d17-a6fc-e38e58a2b320
                © 2023

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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