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Leaf Rust of Wheat: Pathogen Biology, Variation and Host Resistance

Forests

MDPI AG

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      A putative ABC transporter confers durable resistance to multiple fungal pathogens in wheat.

      Agricultural crops benefit from resistance to pathogens that endures over years and generations of both pest and crop. Durable disease resistance, which may be partial or complete, can be controlled by several genes. Some of the most devastating fungal pathogens in wheat are leaf rust, stripe rust, and powdery mildew. The wheat gene Lr34 has supported resistance to these pathogens for more than 50 years. Lr34 is now shared by wheat cultivars around the world. Here, we show that the LR34 protein resembles adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters of the pleiotropic drug resistance subfamily. Alleles of Lr34 conferring resistance or susceptibility differ by three genetic polymorphisms. The Lr34 gene, which functions in the adult plant, stimulates senescence-like processes in the flag leaf tips and edges.
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        Map-based isolation of the leaf rust disease resistance gene Lr10 from the hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genome.

        More than 50 leaf rust resistance (Lr) genes against the fungal pathogen Puccinia triticina have been identified in the wheat gene pool, and a large number of them have been extensively used in breeding. Of the 50 Lr genes, all are known only from their phenotype and/or map position except for Lr21, which was cloned recently. For many years, the problems of molecular work in the large (1.6 x 10(10) bp), highly repetitive (80%), and hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genome have hampered map-based cloning. Here, we report the isolation of the Lr gene Lr10 from hexaploid wheat by using a combination of subgenome map-based cloning and haplotype studies in the genus Triticum. Lr10 is a single-copy gene on chromosome 1AS. It encodes a CC-NBS-LRR type of protein with an N-terminal domain, which is under diversifying selection. When overexpressed in transgenic wheat plants, Lr10 confers enhanced resistance to leaf rust. Lr10 has similarities to RPM1 in Arabidopsis thaliana and to resistance gene analogs in rice and barley, but is not closely related to other wheat Lr genes based on Southern analysis. We conclude that map-based cloning of genes of agronomic importance in hexaploid wheat is now feasible, opening perspectives for molecular bread wheat improvement trough transgenic strategies and diagnostic allele detection.
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          Plant infection and the establishment of fungal biotrophy.

          To exploit plants as living substrates, biotrophic fungi have evolved remarkable variations of their tubular cells, the hyphae. They form infection structures such as appressoria, penetration hyphae and infection hyphae to invade the plant with minimal damage to host cells. To establish compatibility with the host, controlled secretory activity and distinct interface layers appear to be essential. Colletotrichum species switch from initial biotrophic to necrotrophic growth and are amenable to mutant analysis and molecular studies. Obligate biotrophic rust fungi can form the most specialized hypha: the haustorium. Gene expression and immunocytological studies with rust fungi support the idea that the haustorium is a transfer apparatus for the long-term absorption of host nutrients.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Forests
            Forests
            MDPI AG
            1999-4907
            March 2013
            January 16 2013
            : 4
            : 1
            : 70-84
            10.3390/f4010070
            © 2013

            https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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            Self URI (article page): http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/4/1/70

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