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      Simulating Cross-Contamination of Cooked Pork with Salmonella enterica from Raw Pork through Home Kitchen Preparation in Vietnam

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          Abstract

          Pork is the most commonly consumed meat in Vietnam, and Salmonella enterica is a common contaminant. This study aimed to assess potential S. enterica cross-contamination between raw and cooked pork in Vietnamese households. Different scenarios for cross-contamination were constructed based on a household survey of pork handling practices (416 households). Overall, 71% of people used the same knife and cutting board for both raw and cooked pork; however, all washed their hands and utensils between handling raw and cooked pork. The different scenarios were experimentally tested. First, S. enterica was inoculated on raw pork and surfaces (hands, knives and cutting boards); next, water used for washing and pork were sampled to identify the presence and concentration of S. enterica during different scenarios of food preparation. Bootstrapping techniques were applied to simulate transfer rates of S. enterica cross-contamination. No cross-contamination to cooked pork was observed in the scenario of using the same hands with new cutting boards and knives. The probability of re-contamination in the scenarios involving re-using the cutting board after washing was significantly higher compared to the scenarios which used a new cutting board. Stochastic simulation found a high risk of cross-contamination from raw to cooked pork when the same hands, knives and cutting boards were used for handling raw and cooked pork (78%); when the same cutting board but a different knife was used, cross-contamination was still high (67%). Cross-contamination between was not seen when different cutting boards and knives were used for cutting raw and cooked pork. This study provided an insight into cross-contamination of S. enterica, given common food handling practices in Vietnamese households and can be used for risk assessment of pork consumption.

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          Most cited references49

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          Food Safety in Low and Middle Income Countries

          Evidence on foodborne disease (FBD) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is still limited, but important studies in recent years have broadened our understanding. These suggest that developing country consumers are concerned about FBD; that most of the known burden of FBD disease comes from biological hazards; and, that most FBD is the result of consumption of fresh, perishable foods sold in informal markets. FBD is likely to increase in LMICs as the result of massive increases in the consumption of risky foods (livestock and fish products and produce) and lengthening and broadening value chains. Although intensification of agricultural production is a strong trend, so far agro-industrial production and modern retail have not demonstrated clear advantages in food safety and disease control. There is limited evidence on effective, sustainable and scalable interventions to improve food safety in domestic markets. Training farmers on input use and good practices often benefits those farmers trained, but has not been scalable or sustainable, except where good practices are linked to eligibility for export. Training informal value chain actors who receive business benefits from being trained has been more successful. New technologies, growing public concern and increased emphasis on food system governance can also improve food safety.
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            Estimation of bacterial densities by means of the "most probable number".

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              Cross-contamination and recontamination by Salmonella in foods: A review

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                22 October 2018
                October 2018
                : 15
                : 10
                : 2324
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Center for Public Health and Ecosystem Research, Hanoi University of Public Health, 1A Duc Thang Road, Duc Thang Ward, North Tu Liem District, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam; dxs@ 123456huph.edu.vn (S.D.-X.); H.Nguyen@ 123456cgiar.org (H.N.-V.); pdp@ 123456vohun.org (P.P.-D.); nam.global247@ 123456gmail.com (N.N.-H.)
                [2 ]Veterinary Epidemiology Unit, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, 582 Bunkyodai Midorimachi, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501, Japan
                [3 ]International Livestock Research Institute, 298 Kim Ma Street, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam; F.Unger@ 123456cgiar.org
                [4 ]Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), 57 Socinstrasse, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
                [5 ]University of Basel, Socinstrasse 57, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
                [6 ]International Livestock Research Institute, 30709 Naivasha Street, Nairobi 00100, Kenya; D.GRACE@ 123456cgiar.org
                [7 ]National Institute of Veterinary Research, 86 Truong Chinh, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam; ntt3180@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: kmakita@ 123456rakuno.ac.jp ; Tel.: +81-11-388-4761
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0522-7808
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0195-9489
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0181-0246
                Article
                ijerph-15-02324
                10.3390/ijerph15102324
                6210979
                30360454
                ab4e997b-cef6-4069-b037-9e6175e4764f
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 03 September 2018
                : 15 October 2018
                Categories
                Article

                Public health
                cross-contamination,pork,salmonella enterica,simulation,vietnam
                Public health
                cross-contamination, pork, salmonella enterica, simulation, vietnam

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