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      The Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource in Epitope Discovery and Synthetic Vaccine Design

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          Abstract

          The task of epitope discovery and vaccine design is increasingly reliant on bioinformatics analytic tools and access to depositories of curated data relevant to immune reactions and specific pathogens. The Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) was indeed created to assist biomedical researchers in the development of new vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics. The Analysis Resource is freely available to all researchers and provides access to a variety of epitope analysis and prediction tools. The tools include validated and benchmarked methods to predict MHC class I and class II binding. The predictions from these tools can be combined with tools predicting antigen processing, TCR recognition, and B cell epitope prediction. In addition, the resource contains a variety of secondary analysis tools that allow the researcher to calculate epitope conservation, population coverage, and other relevant analytic variables. The researcher involved in vaccine design and epitope discovery will also be interested in accessing experimental published data, relevant to the specific indication of interest. The database component of the IEDB contains a vast amount of experimentally derived epitope data that can be queried through a flexible user interface. The IEDB is linked to other pathogen-specific and immunological database resources.

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          Most cited references53

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          Comparative Protein Structure Modeling Using MODELLER.

          Comparative protein structure modeling predicts the three-dimensional structure of a given protein sequence (target) based primarily on its alignment to one or more proteins of known structure (templates). The prediction process consists of fold assignment, target-template alignment, model building, and model evaluation. This unit describes how to calculate comparative models using the program MODELLER and how to use the ModBase database of such models, and discusses all four steps of comparative modeling, frequently observed errors, and some applications. Modeling lactate dehydrogenase from Trichomonas vaginalis (TvLDH) is described as an example. The download and installation of the MODELLER software is also described. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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            I-TASSER server for protein 3D structure prediction

            Yang Zhang (2008)
            Background Prediction of 3-dimensional protein structures from amino acid sequences represents one of the most important problems in computational structural biology. The community-wide Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction (CASP) experiments have been designed to obtain an objective assessment of the state-of-the-art of the field, where I-TASSER was ranked as the best method in the server section of the recent 7th CASP experiment. Our laboratory has since then received numerous requests about the public availability of the I-TASSER algorithm and the usage of the I-TASSER predictions. Results An on-line version of I-TASSER is developed at the KU Center for Bioinformatics which has generated protein structure predictions for thousands of modeling requests from more than 35 countries. A scoring function (C-score) based on the relative clustering structural density and the consensus significance score of multiple threading templates is introduced to estimate the accuracy of the I-TASSER predictions. A large-scale benchmark test demonstrates a strong correlation between the C-score and the TM-score (a structural similarity measurement with values in [0, 1]) of the first models with a correlation coefficient of 0.91. Using a C-score cutoff > -1.5 for the models of correct topology, both false positive and false negative rates are below 0.1. Combining C-score and protein length, the accuracy of the I-TASSER models can be predicted with an average error of 0.08 for TM-score and 2 Å for RMSD. Conclusion The I-TASSER server has been developed to generate automated full-length 3D protein structural predictions where the benchmarked scoring system helps users to obtain quantitative assessments of the I-TASSER models. The output of the I-TASSER server for each query includes up to five full-length models, the confidence score, the estimated TM-score and RMSD, and the standard deviation of the estimations. The I-TASSER server is freely available to the academic community at .
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              Reliable prediction of T-cell epitopes using neural networks with novel sequence representations.

              In this paper we describe an improved neural network method to predict T-cell class I epitopes. A novel input representation has been developed consisting of a combination of sparse encoding, Blosum encoding, and input derived from hidden Markov models. We demonstrate that the combination of several neural networks derived using different sequence-encoding schemes has a performance superior to neural networks derived using a single sequence-encoding scheme. The new method is shown to have a performance that is substantially higher than that of other methods. By use of mutual information calculations we show that peptides that bind to the HLA A*0204 complex display signal of higher order sequence correlations. Neural networks are ideally suited to integrate such higher order correlations when predicting the binding affinity. It is this feature combined with the use of several neural networks derived from different and novel sequence-encoding schemes and the ability of the neural network to be trained on data consisting of continuous binding affinities that gives the new method an improved performance. The difference in predictive performance between the neural network methods and that of the matrix-driven methods is found to be most significant for peptides that bind strongly to the HLA molecule, confirming that the signal of higher order sequence correlation is most strongly present in high-binding peptides. Finally, we use the method to predict T-cell epitopes for the genome of hepatitis C virus and discuss possible applications of the prediction method to guide the process of rational vaccine design.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-3224
                14 March 2017
                2017
                : 8
                : 278
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology , La Jolla, CA, USA
                Author notes

                Edited by: Clarisa B. Palatnik-de-Sousa, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

                Reviewed by: Daniel Olive, Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM), France; Arun Kumar, Health Sciences North, Canada

                *Correspondence: Ward Fleri, wfleri@ 123456lji.org

                Specialty section: This article was submitted to Vaccines and Molecular Therapeutics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                Article
                10.3389/fimmu.2017.00278
                5348633
                28352270
                ab54461e-3353-4215-ae16-0ff79ca4e483
                Copyright © 2017 Fleri, Paul, Dhanda, Mahajan, Xu, Peters and Sette.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 22 December 2016
                : 27 February 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 82, Pages: 16, Words: 12488
                Funding
                Funded by: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases 10.13039/100000060
                Award ID: HHSN272201200010C
                Categories
                Immunology
                Review

                Immunology
                epitope,prediction,t cell,antibody,vaccines,mhc class i,mhc class ii,immunogenicity
                Immunology
                epitope, prediction, t cell, antibody, vaccines, mhc class i, mhc class ii, immunogenicity

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