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      Cancer Vaccines: Bench to Bedside

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          Cancer Cell Membrane-Coated Nanoparticles for Anticancer Vaccination and Drug Delivery

          Cell-derived nanoparticles have been garnering increased attention due to their ability to mimic many of the natural properties displayed by their source cells. This top-down engineering approach can be applied toward the development of novel therapeutic strategies owing to the unique interactions enabled through the retention of complex antigenic information. Herein, we report on the biological functionalization of polymeric nanoparticles with a layer of membrane coating derived from cancer cells. The resulting core–shell nanostructures, which carry the full array of cancer cell membrane antigens, offer a robust platform with applicability toward multiple modes of anticancer therapy. We demonstrate that by coupling the particles with an immunological adjuvant, the resulting formulation can be used to promote a tumor-specific immune response for use in vaccine applications. Moreover, we show that by taking advantage of the inherent homotypic binding phenomenon frequently observed among tumor cells the membrane functionalization allows for a unique cancer targeting strategy that can be utilized for drug delivery applications.
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            Interaction of heat shock proteins with peptides and antigen presenting cells: chaperoning of the innate and adaptive immune responses.

            Heat shock proteins are abundant soluble intracellular proteins, present in all cells. Members of the heat shock protein family bind peptides including antigenic peptides generated within cells. Heat shock proteins also interact with antigen presenting cells through CD91 and other receptors, eliciting a cascade of events including re-presentation of heat shock protein-chaperoned peptides by MHC, translocation of NF kappa B into the nuclei and maturation of dendritic cells. These consequences point to a key role of heat shock proteins in fundamental immunological phenomena such as activation of antigen presenting cells, indirect presentation (or cross-priming), and chaperoning of peptides during antigen presentation. Heat shock proteins appear to have been involved in innate immune responses since the emergence of phagocytes in early multicellular organisms and to have been commandeered for adaptive immune responses with the advent of specificity. These properties of heat shock proteins also allow them to be used for immunotherapy of cancers and infections in novel ways.
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              Size-Dependent Immunogenicity: Therapeutic and Protective Properties of Nano-Vaccines against Tumors

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JTS
                International Journal of Translational Science
                IJTS
                River Publishers
                2246-8765
                2016
                : 2016
                : 1
                : 33-60
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Departmentof Microbiology and Immunology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
                [2 ]Department of Surgery, Metropolitan Hospital Centre 1901 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10029, USA
                [3 ]Department of Pharmacology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
                Article
                10.13052/ijts2246-8765.2016.003
                © 2016

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Engineering, Materials science

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