Acute-phase serum proteins were induced by administrating a chicken with turpentine oil. One of these proteins was a new protein that appeared in front of albumin in polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis using a 4.5-16% gel. To purify this protein, turpentine-administrated chicken serum was fractionated by ammonium sulfate precipitation at 50% saturation, and the supernatant fraction was chromatographed on a DEAE-Toyopearl 650S column. The purified protein is a mannose-glycoprotein, and its N-terminal sequence, determined by the Edoman method, is not homologous from that of other reported acute-phase proteins. An analysis of physiological function with two different test systems, chemiluminescence measurement and electron spin resonance spectroscopy, showed that the purified protein has antioxidant activity and inhibits superoxide (O(2)) mediated by activation of the receptor. In support of these results, the complete amino acid sequence of 18-B is homologous to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) family of proteins that participate in the regulation of leukocyte function. 18-B is composed of four SRCR domains, which is different from the previously characterized SRCR family of proteins such as Spalpha, CD6, and CD163. These findings indicate that turpentine-induced 18-B, a new member of scavenger receptor cysteine-rich family, may be implicated in regulation of cell function in a manner of inhibition of the overproduction of the reactive oxygen species.