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      Development of the Observation Schedule for Children with Autism–Anxiety, Behaviour and Parenting (OSCA–ABP): A New Measure of Child and Parenting Behavior for Use with Young Autistic Children


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          Co-occurring emotional and behavioral problems (EBPs) frequently exist in young autistic children. There is evidence based on parental report that parenting interventions reduce child EBPs. More objective measures of child EBPs should supplement parent reported outcomes in trials. We describe the development of a new measure of child and parenting behavior, the Observation Schedule for Children with Autism–Anxiety, Behaviour and Parenting (OSCA–ABP). Participants were 83 parents/carers and their 4–8-year-old autistic children. The measure demonstrated good variance and potential sensitivity to change. Child and parenting behavior were reliably coded among verbal and minimally verbal children. Associations between reports from other informants and observed behavior showed the measure had sufficient convergent validity. The measure has promise to contribute to research and clinical practice in autism mental health beyond objective measurement in trials.

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          The online version of this article (10.1007/s10803-020-04506-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          A Guideline of Selecting and Reporting Intraclass Correlation Coefficients for Reliability Research.

          Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) is a widely used reliability index in test-retest, intrarater, and interrater reliability analyses. This article introduces the basic concept of ICC in the content of reliability analysis.
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            Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample.

            Autism spectrum disorders are now recognized to occur in up to 1% of the population and to be a major public health concern because of their early onset, lifelong persistence, and high levels of associated impairment. Little is known about the associated psychiatric disorders that may contribute to impairment. We identify the rates and type of psychiatric comorbidity associated with ASDs and explore the associations with variables identified as risk factors for child psychiatric disorders. A subgroup of 112 ten- to 14-year old children from a population-derived cohort was assessed for other child psychiatric disorders (3 months' prevalence) through parent interview using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. DSM-IV diagnoses for childhood anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, oppositional defiant and conduct disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorders, trichotillomania, enuresis, and encopresis were identified. Seventy percent of participants had at least one comorbid disorder and 41% had two or more. The most common diagnoses were social anxiety disorder (29.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI)] 13.2-45.1), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (28.2%, 95% CI 13.3-43.0), and oppositional defiant disorder (28.1%, 95% CI 13.9-42.2). Of those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, 84% received a second comorbid diagnosis. There were few associations between putative risk factors and psychiatric disorder. Psychiatric disorders are common and frequently multiple in children with autism spectrum disorders. They may provide targets for intervention and should be routinely evaluated in the clinical assessment of this group.
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              Which terms should be used to describe autism? Perspectives from the UK autism community.

              Recent public discussions suggest that there is much disagreement about the way autism is and should be described. This study sought to elicit the views and preferences of UK autism community members - autistic people, parents and their broader support network - about the terms they use to describe autism. In all, 3470 UK residents responded to an online survey on their preferred ways of describing autism and their rationale for such preferences. The results clearly show that people use many terms to describe autism. The most highly endorsed terms were 'autism' and 'on the autism spectrum', and to a lesser extent, 'autism spectrum disorder', for which there was consensus across community groups. The groups disagreed, however, on the use of several terms. The term 'autistic' was endorsed by a large percentage of autistic adults, family members/friends and parents but by considerably fewer professionals; 'person with autism' was endorsed by almost half of professionals but by fewer autistic adults and parents. Qualitative analysis of an open-ended question revealed the reasons underlying respondents' preferences. These findings demonstrate that there is no single way of describing autism that is universally accepted and preferred by the UK's autism community and that some disagreements appear deeply entrenched.

                Author and article information

                J Autism Dev Disord
                J Autism Dev Disord
                Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
                Springer US (New York )
                30 April 2020
                30 April 2020
                : 51
                : 1
                : 1-14
                [1 ]GRID grid.13097.3c, ISNI 0000 0001 2322 6764, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, , King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, ; London, UK
                [2 ]GRID grid.7273.1, ISNI 0000 0004 0376 4727, Department of Psychology, School of Life and Health Sciences, , Aston University, ; Birmingham, UK
                [3 ]GRID grid.13097.3c, ISNI 0000 0001 2322 6764, Department of Psychology, , King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, ; London, UK
                [4 ]GRID grid.5600.3, ISNI 0000 0001 0807 5670, School of Psychology, , Cardiff University, ; Cardiff, UK
                [5 ]GRID grid.420545.2, Newcomen Neurodevelopmental Centre, Evelina Children’s Hospital, , Guy’s and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust, ; London, UK
                [6 ]GRID grid.13097.3c, ISNI 0000 0001 2322 6764, Department of Biostatistics and Health Informatics, , King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, ; London, UK
                [7 ]GRID grid.37640.36, ISNI 0000 0000 9439 0839, Service for Complex Autism & Associated Neurodevelopmental Disorders, , South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, ; London, UK
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100007602, Programme Grants for Applied Research;
                Award ID: RP-PG-1211-20016
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                © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2021


                autism, child emotional and behavioral problems, parenting, measurement, observation


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