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      Plant health: feedback effect of root exudates-rhizobiome interactions

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          Abstract

          The well-being of the microbial community that densely populates the rhizosphere is aided by a plant’s root exudates. Maintaining a plant’s health is a key factor in its continued existence. As minute as rhizospheric microbes are, their importance in plant growth cannot be overemphasized. They depend on plants for nutrients and other necessary requirements. The relationship between the rhizosphere-microbiome (rhizobiome) and plant hosts can be beneficial, non-effectual, or pathogenic depending on the microbes and the plant involved. This relationship, to a large extent, determines the fate of the host plant’s survival. Modern molecular techniques have been used to unravel rhizobiome species’ composition, but the interplay between the rhizobiome root exudates and other factors in the maintenance of a healthy plant have not as yet been thoroughly investigated. Many functional proteins are activated in plants upon contact with external factors. These proteins may elicit growth promoting or growth suppressing responses from the plants. To optimize the growth and productivity of host plants, rhizobiome microbial diversity and modulatory techniques need to be clearly understood for improved plant health.

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          Microbial hotspots and hot moments in soil: Concept & review

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            Fungal lipochitooligosaccharide symbiotic signals in arbuscular mycorrhiza.

            Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a root endosymbiosis between plants and glomeromycete fungi. It is the most widespread terrestrial plant symbiosis, improving plant uptake of water and mineral nutrients. Yet, despite its crucial role in land ecosystems, molecular mechanisms leading to its formation are just beginning to be unravelled. Recent evidence suggests that AM fungi produce diffusible symbiotic signals. Here we show that Glomus intraradices secretes symbiotic signals that are a mixture of sulphated and non-sulphated simple lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs), which stimulate formation of AM in plant species of diverse families (Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Umbelliferae). In the legume Medicago truncatula these signals stimulate root growth and branching by the symbiotic DMI signalling pathway. These findings provide a better understanding of the evolution of signalling mechanisms involved in plant root endosymbioses and will greatly facilitate their molecular dissection. They also open the way to using these natural and very active molecules in agriculture.
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              Mechanisms of action of plant growth promoting bacteria

              The idea of eliminating the use of fertilizers which are sometimes environmentally unsafe is slowly becoming a reality because of the emergence of microorganisms that can serve the same purpose or even do better. Depletion of soil nutrients through leaching into the waterways and causing contamination are some of the negative effects of these chemical fertilizers that prompted the need for suitable alternatives. This brings us to the idea of using microbes that can be developed for use as biological fertilizers (biofertilizers). They are environmentally friendly as they are natural living organisms. They increase crop yield and production and, in addition, in developing countries, they are less expensive compared to chemical fertilizers. These biofertilizers are typically called plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). In addition to PGPB, some fungi have also been demonstrated to promote plant growth. Apart from improving crop yields, some biofertilizers also control various plant pathogens. The objective of worldwide sustainable agriculture is much more likely to be achieved through the widespread use of biofertilizers rather than chemically synthesized fertilizers. However, to realize this objective it is essential that the many mechanisms employed by PGPB first be thoroughly understood thereby allowing workers to fully harness the potentials of these microbes. The present state of our knowledge regarding the fundamental mechanisms employed by PGPB is discussed herein.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +27183892568 , olubukola.babalola@nwu.ac.za
                Journal
                Appl Microbiol Biotechnol
                Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol
                Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                0175-7598
                1432-0614
                20 December 2018
                20 December 2018
                2019
                : 103
                : 3
                : 1155-1166
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9769 2525, GRID grid.25881.36, Food Security and Safety Niche Area, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, , North-West University, ; Mmabatho, 2735 South Africa
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8644 1405, GRID grid.46078.3d, Department of Biology, , University of Waterloo, ; Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 Canada
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1682-1060
                Article
                9556
                10.1007/s00253-018-9556-6
                6394481
                30570692
                ab7d2c67-24c9-475c-bcce-dc27f78ba438
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                History
                : 18 October 2018
                : 1 December 2018
                : 3 December 2018
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001321, National Research Foundation;
                Award ID: UID81192
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Mini-Review
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

                Biotechnology
                mamps,plant-microbe interaction,peps,quorum sensing,rhizobiome,root exudates
                Biotechnology
                mamps, plant-microbe interaction, peps, quorum sensing, rhizobiome, root exudates

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