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      Despite early antiretroviral therapy effector memory and follicular helper CD4 T cells are major reservoirs in visceral lymphoid tissues of SIV-infected macaques

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          Abstract

          Whereas antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses viral replication, ART discontinuation results in viral rebound, indicating the presence of viral reservoirs (VRs) established within lymphoid tissues. Herein, by sorting CD4 T-cell subsets from the spleen, mesenteric and peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) of SIVmac251-infected rhesus macaques (RMs), we demonstrate that effector memory (TEM) and follicular helper (TFH) CD4 + T cells harbor the highest frequency of viral DNA and RNA, as well of early R-U5 transcripts in ART-naïve RMs. Furthermore, our results highlight that these two CD4 T cells subsets harbor viral DNA and early R-U5 transcripts in the spleen and mesenteric LNs (but not in peripheral LN) of RMs treated with ART at day 4 post infection suggesting that these two anatomical sites are important for viral persistence. Finally, after ART interruption, we demonstrate the rapid and, compared to peripheral LNs, earlier seeding of SIV in spleen and mesenteric LNs, thereby emphasizing the importance of these two anatomical sites for viral replication dynamics. Altogether our results advance understanding of early viral seeding in which visceral lymphoid tissues are crucial in maintaining TEM and TFH VRs.

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          Most cited references65

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          Identification of a reservoir for HIV-1 in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

          The hypothesis that quiescent CD4+ T lymphocytes carrying proviral DNA provide a reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was examined. In a study of 22 patients successfully treated with HAART for up to 30 months, replication-competent virus was routinely recovered from resting CD4+ T lymphocytes. The frequency of resting CD4+ T cells harboring latent HIV-1 was low, 0.2 to 16.4 per 10(6) cells, and, in cross-sectional analysis, did not decrease with increasing time on therapy. The recovered viruses generally did not show mutations associated with resistance to the relevant antiretroviral drugs. This reservoir of nonevolving latent virus in resting CD4+ T cells should be considered in deciding whether to terminate treatment in patients who respond to HAART.
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            Quantification of latent tissue reservoirs and total body viral load in HIV-1 infection.

            The capacity of HIV-1 to establish latent infection of CD4+ T cells may allow viral persistence despite immune responses and antiretroviral therapy. Measurements of infectious virus and viral RNA in plasma and of infectious virus, viral DNA and viral messenger RNA species in infected cells all suggest that HIV-1 replication continues throughout the course of infection. Uncertainty remains over what fraction of CD4+ T cells are infected and whether there are latent reservoirs for the virus. We show here that during the asymptomatic phase of infection there is an extremely low total body load of latently infected resting CD4+ T cells with replication-competent integrated provirus (<10(7) cells). The most prevalent form of HIV-1 DNA in resting and activated CD4+ T cells is a full-length, linear, unintegrated form that is not replication competent. The infection progresses even though at any given time in the lymphoid tissues integrated HIV-1 DNA is present in only a minute fraction of the susceptible populations, including resting and activated CD4+ T cells and macrophages.
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              Massive infection and loss of memory CD4+ T cells in multiple tissues during acute SIV infection.

              It has recently been established that both acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections are accompanied by a dramatic and selective loss of memory CD4+ T cells predominantly from the mucosal surfaces. The mechanism underlying this depletion of memory CD4+ T cells (that is, T-helper cells specific to previously encountered pathogens) has not been defined. Using highly sensitive, quantitative polymerase chain reaction together with precise sorting of different subsets of CD4+ T cells in various tissues, we show that this loss is explained by a massive infection of memory CD4+ T cells by the virus. Specifically, 30-60% of CD4+ memory T cells throughout the body are infected by SIV at the peak of infection, and most of these infected cells disappear within four days. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the depletion of memory CD4+ T cells occurs to a similar extent in all tissues. As a consequence, over one-half of all memory CD4+ T cells in SIV-infected macaques are destroyed directly by viral infection during the acute phase-an insult that certainly heralds subsequent immunodeficiency. Our findings point to the importance of reducing the cell-associated viral load during acute infection through therapeutic or vaccination strategies.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +001 418 656 4141 , estaquier@yahoo.fr
                Journal
                Mucosal Immunol
                Mucosal Immunol
                Mucosal Immunology
                Nature Publishing Group US (New York )
                1933-0219
                1935-3456
                13 November 2019
                13 November 2019
                2020
                : 13
                : 1
                : 149-160
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8390, GRID grid.23856.3a, Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, , Université Laval, ; Québec, QC Canada
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0941 6502, GRID grid.189967.8, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, , Emory University, ; Atlanta, GA USA
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2188 0914, GRID grid.10992.33, INSERM U1124, Université Paris Descartes, ; Paris, France
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0743 2111, GRID grid.410559.c, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, ; Montréal, QC Canada
                Article
                221
                10.1038/s41385-019-0221-x
                6914669
                31723251
                ab8cd553-5dbb-4b79-a8ea-a65ebb1d40a6
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 31 July 2019
                : 22 October 2019
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                © Society for Mucosal Immunology 2020

                Immunology
                Immunology

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