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      Prepare Cells to Repair the Heart: Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Heart Failure

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          Abstract

          Heart failure is one of the most important cardiovascular diseases, with high mortality, and invasive treatment such as mechanical circulatory support and cardiac transplantation is sometimes required for severe heart failure. Therefore, the development of less invasive and more effective therapeutic strategies is desired. Cell therapy is attracting growing interest as a new approach for the treatment of heart failure. As a cell source, various kinds of stem/progenitor cells such as bone marrow cells, endothelial progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and cardiac stem cells have been investigated for their efficacy and safety. Especially, bone marrow-derived MSC possess multipotency and can be easily expanded in culture, and are thus an attractive therapeutic tool for heart failure. Recent studies have revealed the underlying mechanisms of MSC in cardiac repair: MSC not only differentiate into specific cell types such as cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells, but also secrete a variety of paracrine angiogenic and cytoprotective factors. It has also been suggested that endogenous MSC as well as exogenously transplanted MSC migrate and participate in cardiac repair. Based on these findings, several clinical trials have just been started to evaluate the safety and efficacy of MSC for the treatment of heart failure.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Mesenchymal progenitor cells in human umbilical cord blood.

          Haemopoiesis is sustained by two main cellular components, the haematopoietic cells (HSCs) and the mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs). MPCs are multipotent and are the precursors for marrow stroma, bone, cartilage, muscle and connective tissues. Although the presence of HSCs in umbilical cord blood (UCB) is well known, that of MPCs has been not fully evaluated. In this study, we examined the ability of UCB harvests to generate in culture cells with characteristics of MPCs. Results showed that UCB-derived mononuclear cells, when set in culture, gave rise to adherent cells, which exhibited either an osteoclast- or a mesenchymal-like phenotype. Cells with the osteoclast phenotype were multinucleated, expressed TRAP activity and antigens CD45 and CD51/CD61. In turn, cells with the mesenchymal phenotype displayed a fibroblast-like morphology and expressed several MPC-related antigens (SH2, SH3, SH4, ASMA, MAB 1470, CD13, CD29 and CD49e). Our results suggest that preterm, as compared with term, cord blood is richer in mesenchymal progenitors, similar to haematopoietic progenitors.
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            Cardiac progenitor cells from adult myocardium: homing, differentiation, and fusion after infarction.

            Potential repair by cell grafting or mobilizing endogenous cells holds particular attraction in heart disease, where the meager capacity for cardiomyocyte proliferation likely contributes to the irreversibility of heart failure. Whether cardiac progenitors exist in adult myocardium itself is unanswered, as is the question whether undifferentiated cardiac precursor cells merely fuse with preexisting myocytes. Here we report the existence of adult heart-derived cardiac progenitor cells expressing stem cell antigen-1. Initially, the cells express neither cardiac structural genes nor Nkx2.5 but differentiate in vitro in response to 5'-azacytidine, in part depending on Bmpr1a, a receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins. Given intravenously after ischemia/reperfusion, cardiac stem cell antigen 1 cells home to injured myocardium. By using a Cre/Lox donor/recipient pair (alphaMHC-Cre/R26R), differentiation was shown to occur roughly equally, with and without fusion to host cells.
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              Isolation and expansion of adult cardiac stem cells from human and murine heart.

              Cardiac myocytes have been traditionally regarded as terminally differentiated cells that adapt to increased work and compensate for disease exclusively through hypertrophy. However, in the past few years, compelling evidence has accumulated suggesting that the heart has regenerative potential. Recent studies have even surmised the existence of resident cardiac stem cells, endothelial cells generating cardiomyocytes by cell contact or extracardiac progenitors for cardiomyocytes, but these findings are still controversial. We describe the isolation of undifferentiated cells that grow as self-adherent clusters (that we have termed "cardiospheres") from subcultures of postnatal atrial or ventricular human biopsy specimens and from murine hearts. These cells are clonogenic, express stem and endothelial progenitor cell antigens/markers, and appear to have the properties of adult cardiac stem cells. They are capable of long-term self-renewal and can differentiate in vitro and after ectopic (dorsal subcutaneous connective tissue) or orthotopic (myocardial infarction) transplantation in SCID beige mouse to yield the major specialized cell types of the heart: myocytes (ie, cells demonstrating contractile activity and/or showing cardiomyocyte markers) and vascular cells (ie, cells with endothelial or smooth muscle markers).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2007
                May 2007
                25 April 2007
                : 27
                : 3
                : 301-307
                Affiliations
                Department of Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Osaka, Japan
                Article
                102000 Am J Nephrol 2007;27:301–307
                10.1159/000102000
                17460394
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 1, References: 79, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Kidney and beyond – Review Article

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