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      Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae): a review

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          Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most important vector of AmericanVisceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) due to Leishmania chagasi in the New World. Despite its importance, AVL, a disease primarily of rural areas, has increased its prevalence and became urbanized in some large cities in Brazil and other countries in Latin America. Although the disease is treatable, other control measures include elimination of infected dogs and the use of insecticides to kill the sand flies. A better understanding of vector biology could also account as one more tool for AVL control. A wide variety of papers about L. longipalpis have been published in the recent past years. This review summarizes our current information of this particular sand fly regarding its importance, biology, morphology, pheromones genetics, saliva, gut physiology and parasite interactions.

          Translated abstract

          Lutzomya longipalpis é o vetor mais importante da Leishmania chagasi, agente etiológico da Leishmaniose Visceral Americana (AVL), no Novo Mundo. A AVL, uma doença predominante em zonas rurais, tem aumentado sua prevalência, tornando-se urbana nas grandes cidades no Brasil e em outros países na América Latina. Embora a AVL seja uma doença tratável, medidas de prevenção devem ser utilizadas, como a eliminação dos cães infectados e o uso de inseticidas. A melhor compreensão da biologia do vetor poderia ser mais uma medida para o controle da AVL. Um grande número de artigos sobre L. longipalpis foi publicado recentemente. Esta revisão sumariza as pesquisas atuais em L. longipalpis em relação a sua importância, biologia, morfologia, feromônios genética, saliva, fisiologia do intestino e interações com diferentes parasitas.

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          Most cited references 265

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          Phlebotomine vectors of the leishmaniases: a review.

           R Killick (1989)
          An account is given of work published during the past 10 years incriminating species of phlebotomine sandflies as vectors of Leishmania species which infect man. An assessment is made of the degrees of certainty of the vectorial roles of eighty-one species and subspecies of sandflies (thirty-seven Old World and forty-four New World) in the transmission of twenty-nine leishmanial parasites of mammals. At least one species of sandfly is considered to be a proven vector of each of ten parasites. Of the eighty-one sandfly taxa, evidence is judged to be sufficient to incriminate nineteen as proven vectors (eleven Phlebotomus species and eight Lutzomyia species or subspecies) and evidence for a further fourteen (nine Phlebotomus species and five Lutzomyia species or subspecies) is considered to be strong. The suggested criteria for incrimination of a vector are anthropophily and common infection with the same leishmanial parasite as that found in man in the same place. More weight should be given to natural infections persisting after the digestion of a bloodmeal than those in the presence of blood. Supporting evidence is a concordance in the distribution of the fly and the disease in man, proof that the fly feeds regularly on the reservoir host, a flourishing development of the parasite in infected flies and the experimental transmission of the parasite by the bite of the fly.
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            The biology and control of phlebotomine sand flies.

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              Role of saliva in blood-feeding by arthropods.

               Jose Ribeiro (1986)

                Author and article information

                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
                An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc.
                Academia Brasileira de Ciências (Rio de Janeiro )
                September 2003
                : 75
                : 3
                : 301-330
                [1 ] University of Kentucky United States
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