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      Activation of a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Hog1 by DNA Damaging Agent Methyl Methanesulfonate in Yeast


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          Hog1 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase in yeast that primarily regulates cellular responses to hyperosmolarity stress. In this study, we have examined the potential involvement of Hog1 in mediating cellular responses to DNA damaging agents. We find that treatment of yeast cells with DNA damaging agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) induces a marked and prolonged Hog1 activation. Distinct from stressors such as arsenite that activates Hog1 via inhibiting its phosphatases, activation of Hog1 by MMS is phosphatase-independent. Instead, MMS impairs a critical phosphor-relay process that normally keeps Hog1 in an inactive state. Functionally, MMS-activated Hog1 is not translocated to the nucleus to regulate gene expression but rather stays in the cytoplasm and regulates MMS-induced autophagy and cell adaptation to MMS stress. These findings reveal a new role of Hog1 in regulating MMS-induced cellular stress.

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          Autophagy is a highly conserved eukaryotic cellular recycling process. Through the degradation of cytoplasmic organelles, proteins, and macromolecules, and the recycling of the breakdown products, autophagy plays important roles in cell survival and maintenance. Accordingly, dysfunction of this process contributes to the pathologies of many human diseases. Extensive research is currently being done to better understand the process of autophagy. In this review, we describe current knowledge of the morphology, molecular mechanism, and regulation of mammalian autophagy. At the mechanistic and regulatory levels, there are still many unanswered questions and points of confusion that have yet to be resolved. Through further research, a more complete and accurate picture of the molecular mechanism and regulation of autophagy will not only strengthen our understanding of this significant cellular process, but will aid in the development of new treatments for human diseases in which autophagy is not functioning properly.
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              Living organisms are continuously exposed to a myriad of DNA damaging agents that can impact health and modulate disease-states. However, robust DNA repair and damage-bypass mechanisms faithfully protect the DNA by either removing or tolerating the damage to ensure an overall survival. Deviations in this fine-tuning are known to destabilize cellular metabolic homeostasis, as exemplified in diverse cancers where disruption or deregulation of DNA repair pathways results in genome instability. Because routinely used biological, physical and chemical agents impact human health, testing their genotoxicity and regulating their use have become important. In this introductory review, we will delineate mechanisms of DNA damage and the counteracting repair/tolerance pathways to provide insights into the molecular basis of genotoxicity in cells that lays the foundation for subsequent articles in this issue. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

                Author and article information

                Front Mol Biosci
                Front Mol Biosci
                Front. Mol. Biosci.
                Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                11 December 2020
                : 7
                Department of Biology, Saint Louis University , St. Louis, MO, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Markus J. Tamás, University of Gothenburg, Sweden

                Reviewed by: David E. Levin, Boston University, United States; Eulàlia De Nadal, Pompeu Fabra University, Spain

                *Correspondence: Yuqi Wang yuqi.wang@ 123456slu.edu

                This article was submitted to Cellular Biochemistry, a section of the journal Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences

                Copyright © 2020 Huang, Zhang, Weng and Wang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 53, Pages: 10, Words: 6532
                Funded by: National Institutes of Health 10.13039/100000002
                Molecular Biosciences
                Brief Research Report

                hog1,dna damage,mitogen-activated protein kinase,ypd1,autophagy,yeast hog1 activation by dna damage


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