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      Telogen Effluvium after SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Series of Cases and Possible Pathogenetic Mechanisms


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          Physicians have largely studied the cutaneous involvement of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but only few reports have focused on telogen effluvium (TE) as a possible sequela of COVID-19. We assessed 14 cases of hair loss occurring after SARS-CoV-2 infection using trichoscopy and trichogram to investigate patterns related to COVID-19. Furthermore, we discussed possible mechanisms involved in COVID-19 TE.

          Case Presentation

          Fourteen individuals were referred to our post-COVID-19 dermatology office complaining acute hair loss after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical evaluation included pull test, trichoscopy, and trichogram. CO­VID-19 TE occurred after a median of 2 months (range 1–3 months) following SARS-CoV-2 infection. The median duration of hair loss was 5 months (range 1–6 months). Trichoscopy showed variable but typical TE patterns. Trichogram showed different telogen/anagen ratio depending on the interval between onset of hair loss and trichological visit.


          Our cases showed TE between 1 and 3 months after the onset of SARS-CoV-2 infection, thus earlier than classic TE. Trichoscopic features and trichogram showed no variations from classic TE. Different pathogenetic mechanisms including pro-inflammatory cytokines and direct viral damage on the hair follicle can be hypothesized; further studies on a larger sample are needed to better understand this condition.

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          Most cited references26

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          Cutaneous Manifestations of COVID-19: An Evidence-Based Review

          Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected 18 million people and killed over 690,000 patients. Although this virus primarily causes respiratory symptoms, an increasing number of cutaneous manifestations associated with this disease have been reported. Objective The aim of this review was to collate and categorize the dermatologic findings reported in patients with COVID-19 and identify specific lesions that may facilitate diagnosis and prognostication. Methods An evidence-based review of the PubMed database was conducted on 14 May, 2020 using the search terms “Covid-19 skin,” “Covid-19 rash,” “Covid-19 exanthem,” and “Covid-19 chilblains.” Peer-reviewed publications containing original COVID-19 patient cases and a discussion of the associated cutaneous findings were included in the analysis. Results The literature search identified 115 records, of which 34 publications describing 996 patients with dermatologic conditions were included. Case reports (n = 15), case series (n = 13), and observational prospective studies (n = 4) were the most common publication types. Acral lesions resembling pseudo-chilblains were the most frequent lesion identified (40.4% of cases), appearing in young adults (mean age, 23.2 years) after the onset of extracutaneous COVID-19 symptoms (55/100 patients). Erythematous maculopapular rashes affected 21.3% of patients, most frequently impacting middle-aged adults (mean age, 53.2 years) and occurring at the same time as non-cutaneous symptoms (110/187 patients). Vesicular rashes affected 13.0% of patients, appearing in middle-aged adults (mean age, 48.3 years) after the onset of other symptoms (52/84 patients). Urticarial rashes affected 10.9% of patients, appearing in adults (mean age, 38.3 years) and occurring at the same time as non-cutaneous symptoms (46/78 patients). Vascular rashes resembling livedo or purpura were uncommon (4% of cases), appearing in elderly patients (mean age, 77.5 years) and occurring at the same time as non-cutaneous COVID-19 symptoms (18/29 patients). Erythema multiforme-like eruptions, although infrequent (3.7% of cases), affected mostly children (mean age, 12.2 years). Conclusions Vesicular rashes may suggest an initial diagnosis of COVID-19, acral lesions may be most appropriate for epidemiological uses, and vascular rashes may be a useful prognostic marker for severe disease. As a potential correlate to disease severity, prognosis, or infectibility, it is critical that all healthcare professionals be well versed in these increasingly common cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19.
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            Dengue Fever, COVID ‐19 ( SARS‐CoV ‐2), and Antibody‐Dependent Enhancement ( ADE ): A Perspective

            Abstract SARS‐CoV‐2 pandemic and recurrent dengue epidemics in tropical countries have turned into a global health threat. While both virus‐caused infections may only reveal light symptoms, they can also cause severe diseases. Here, we review the possible antibody‐dependent enhancement (ADE) occurrence, known for dengue infections, when there is a second infection with a different virus strain. Consequently, preexisting antibodies do not neutralize infection, but enhance it, possibly by triggering Fcγ receptor‐mediated virus uptake. No clinical data exist indicating such mechanism for SARS‐CoV‐2, but previous coronavirus infections or infection of SARS‐CoV‐2 convalescent with different SARS‐CoV‐2 strains could promote ADE, as experimentally shown for antibodies against the MERS‐CoV or SARS‐CoV spike S protein. © 2020 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry
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              Role of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) in the virulence of SARS-CoV-2 and its mitigation strategies for the development of vaccines and immunotherapies to counter COVID-19

              ABSTRACT Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a global threat and death tolls are increasing worldwide. The SARS-CoV-2 though shares similarities with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, immunopathology of the novel virus is not understood properly. Previous reports from SARS and MERS-CoV documents that preexisting, non-neutralizing or poorly neutralizing antibodies developed as a result of vaccine or infection enhance subsequent infection, a phenomenon called as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). Since immunotherapy has been implicated for COVID-19 treatment and vaccine is under development, due consideration has to be provided on ADE to prevent untoward reactions. ADE mitigation strategies like the development of vaccine or immunotherapeutics targeting receptor binding motif can be designed to minimize ADE of SARS-CoV-2 since full-length protein-based approach can lead to ADE as reported in MERS-CoV. The present mini-review aims to address the phenomenon of ADE of SARS-CoV-2 through the lessons learned from SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV and ways to mitigate them so as to develop better vaccines and immunotherapeutics against SARS-CoV-2.

                Author and article information

                Skin Appendage Disord
                Skin Appendage Disord
                Skin Appendage Disorders
                S. Karger AG (Allschwilerstrasse 10, P.O. Box · Postfach · Case postale, CH–4009, Basel, Switzerland · Schweiz · Suisse, Phone: +41 61 306 11 11, Fax: +41 61 306 12 34, karger@karger.com )
                8 July 2021
                : 21
                : 1-5
                Dermatology Unit, Department of Clinical Internal, Anesthesiological and Cardiovascular Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
                Author notes
                Copyright © 2021 by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

                : 20 March 2021
                : 28 April 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 14, Pages: 5
                Novel Insights from Clinical Practice

                coronavirus disease 2019,hair loss,hair microscopy,telogen effluvium,trichoscopy


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