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      Response of Coffee Farms to Hurricane Maria: Resistance and Resilience from an Extreme Climatic Event

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          Abstract

          Resistance and resilience have become important concepts in the evaluation of disturbance events, providing a framework that is useful in light of the expected increase in frequency and occurrences of hurricanes as a consequence of climate change. Hurricane Maria landed on Puerto Rico as a category 4 storm in September of 2017. Among the affected elements were agricultural systems, including coffee agroecosystems. Historically, coffee has been a major backbone of the island’s agricultural sector. Grown with a range of management styles, the coffee agroecosystem provides an excellent model system to study the resistance/resilience of agroecosystems faced with hurricane disturbance. Sampling 28 farms and comparing pre-hurricane data (2013) with post hurricane data we find that management style had only a small effect on either resistance or resilience, likely due to the especially strong nature of the storm. Rather, the socio-political context of individual farms seems to be a more useful predictor of resilience.

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          The increasing intensity of the strongest tropical cyclones.

          Atlantic tropical cyclones are getting stronger on average, with a 30-year trend that has been related to an increase in ocean temperatures over the Atlantic Ocean and elsewhere. Over the rest of the tropics, however, possible trends in tropical cyclone intensity are less obvious, owing to the unreliability and incompleteness of the observational record and to a restricted focus, in previous trend analyses, on changes in average intensity. Here we overcome these two limitations by examining trends in the upper quantiles of per-cyclone maximum wind speeds (that is, the maximum intensities that cyclones achieve during their lifetimes), estimated from homogeneous data derived from an archive of satellite records. We find significant upward trends for wind speed quantiles above the 70th percentile, with trends as high as 0.3 +/- 0.09 m s(-1) yr(-1) (s.e.) for the strongest cyclones. We note separate upward trends in the estimated lifetime-maximum wind speeds of the very strongest tropical cyclones (99th percentile) over each ocean basin, with the largest increase at this quantile occurring over the North Atlantic, although not all basins show statistically significant increases. Our results are qualitatively consistent with the hypothesis that as the seas warm, the ocean has more energy to convert to tropical cyclone wind.
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            Rainfall energy and its relationship to soil loss

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              Responses of Tree Species to Hurricane Winds in Subtropical Wet Forest in Puerto Rico: Implications for Tropical Tree Life Histories

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                perfecto@umich.edu
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                30 October 2019
                30 October 2019
                2019
                : 9
                : 15668
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000000086837370, GRID grid.214458.e, School for Environment and Sustainability, , University of Michigan, ; Ann Arbor, MI USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000000086837370, GRID grid.214458.e, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, , University of Michigan, ; Ann Arbor, MI USA
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2179 3458, GRID grid.264119.9, Environmental Studies Department, , St. Lawrence University, ; Canton, NY USA
                [4 ]Departamento de Biología, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Utuado, Utuado, Puerto Rico
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5465-3988
                Article
                51416
                10.1038/s41598-019-51416-1
                6821701
                31666543
                aba6e2b4-3b01-47c1-8cc9-983481226cd8
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 1 May 2019
                : 28 September 2019
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100005825, United States Department of Agriculture | National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA);
                Award ID: 2017-67019-26292
                Award ID: 2018-67030-28239
                Award ID: 2017-67019-26292
                Award ID: 2018-67030-28239
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100006801, U-M | Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, University of Michigan (Rackham Graduate School);
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100007917, United States Department of Agriculture | Agricultural Research Service (USDA Agricultural Research Service);
                Award ID: 12219186
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Article
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                © The Author(s) 2019

                Uncategorized
                agroecology,climate-change ecology
                Uncategorized
                agroecology, climate-change ecology

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