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      Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates

      review-article
      * ,
      Marine Drugs
      MDPI
      marine invertebrate, sponge, coral, antifouling compound

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          Abstract

          In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

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          Most cited references75

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          Marine invertebrate chemical defenses

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            Natural products as antifouling compounds: recent progress and future perspectives.

            Since early 2008, an increasing number of countries have ratified an international treaty to ban the application of antifouling (AF) coatings based on organotin compounds (eg tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin). As a result, the demand for environmentally friendly, non-toxic or low-toxicity AF compounds and technologies (green AF agents) has become an urgent reality. Marine coatings based on Cu2O and various other biocides have a negative impact on the environment and they must eventually be replaced by new, effective, and environmentally friendly AF compounds. This mini-review describes important AF compounds discovered from a variety of organisms from 2004 until mid 2009, and discusses recent and general trends in the discovery of AF compounds. Finally, a perspective on the future of AF compound development is presented. The discussion is aimed at updating scientists and engineers on the current challenges facing AF research.
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              Biofouling and antifouling.

              Most benthic organisms produce planktonic larvae in their life cycles; larval settlement and metamorphosis are influenced by many environmental factors, especially chemical cues originating from conspecific adults, prey organisms, and substrates. On the other hand, larval settlement of other species endangers the survival of benthic organisms which therefore have antifouling defense. Marine natural products involved in biofouling and antifouling are described.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Mar Drugs
                Mar Drugs
                marinedrugs
                Marine Drugs
                MDPI
                1660-3397
                28 August 2017
                September 2017
                : 15
                : 9
                : 263
                Affiliations
                Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Marine Materia Medica, RNAM Center for Marine Microbiology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 164 West Xingang Road, Guangzhou 510301, China; mx20102112310039@ 123456126.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: shuhuaqi@ 123456scsio.ac.cn ; Tel.: +86-20-8902-2112; Fax: +86-20-8445-8964
                Article
                marinedrugs-15-00263
                10.3390/md15090263
                5618402
                28846623
                abad48cc-efdf-4e78-b0b5-9a73b407d02f
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 30 April 2017
                : 10 July 2017
                Categories
                Review

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                marine invertebrate,sponge,coral,antifouling compound
                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                marine invertebrate, sponge, coral, antifouling compound

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