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      Somatotropic Axis Regulation Unravels the Differential Effects of Nutritional and Environmental Factors in Growth Performance of Marine Farmed Fishes


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          The Gh/Prl/Sl family has evolved differentially through evolution, resulting in varying relationships between the somatotropic axis and growth rates within and across fish species. This is due to a wide range of endogenous and exogenous factors that make this association variable throughout season and life cycle, and the present minireview aims to better define the nutritional and environmental regulation of the endocrine growth cascade over precisely defined groups of fishes, focusing on Mediterranean farmed fishes. As a result, circulating Gh and Igf-i are revitalized as reliable growth markers, with a close association with growth rates of gilthead sea bream juveniles with deficiency signs in both macro- or micro-nutrients. This, together with other regulated responses, promotes the use of Gh and Igf-i as key performance indicators of growth, aerobic scope, and nutritional condition in gilthead sea bream. Moreover, the sirtuin-energy sensors might modulate the growth-promoting action of somatotropic axis. In this scenario, transcripts of igf-i and gh receptors mirror changes in plasma Gh and Igf-i levels, with the ghr-i/ghr-ii expression ratio mostly unaltered over season. However, this ratio is nutritionally regulated, and enriched plant-based diets or diets with specific nutrient deficiencies downregulate hepatic ghr-i, decreasing the ghr-i/ ghr-ii ratio. The same trend, due to a ghr-ii increase, is found in skeletal muscle, whereas impaired growth during overwintering is related to increase in the ghr-i/ ghr-ii and igf-ii/ igf-i ratios in liver and skeletal muscle, respectively. Overall, expression of insulin receptors and igf receptors is less regulated, though the expression quotient is especially high in the liver and muscle of sea bream. Nutritional and environmental regulation of the full Igf binding protein 1–6 repertoire remains to be understood. However, tissue-specific expression profiling highlights an enhanced and nutritionally regulated expression of the igfbp-1/-2/-4 clade in liver, whereas the igfbp-3/-5/-6 clade is overexpressed and regulated in skeletal muscle. The somatotropic axis is, therefore, highly informative of a wide-range of growth-disturbing and stressful stimuli, and multivariate analysis supports its use as a reliable toolset for the assessment of growth potentiality and nutrient deficiencies and requirements, especially in combination with selected panels of other nutritionally regulated metabolic biomarkers.

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          The Sir2 family of protein deacetylases.

          The yeast SIR protein complex has been implicated in transcription silencing and suppression of recombination. The Sir complex represses transcription at telomeres, mating-type loci, and ribosomal DNA. Unlike SIR3 and SIR4, the SIR2 gene is highly conserved in organisms ranging from archaea to humans. Interestingly, Sir2 is active as an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, which is broadly conserved from bacteria to higher eukaryotes. In this review, we discuss the role of NAD+, the unusual products of the deacetylation reaction, the Sir2 structure, and the Sir2 chemical inhibitors and activators that were recently identified. We summarize the current knowledge of the Sir2 homologs from different organisms, and finally we discuss the role of Sir2 in caloric restriction and aging.
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            Insulin-like growth factors I and II. Peptide, messenger ribonucleic acid and gene structures, serum, and tissue concentrations.

            There is currently widespread interest in the IGFs (IGF-I and IGF-II) and their roles in the regulation of growth and differentiation of an ever increasing number of tissues are being reported. This selective review focused on the current state of our knowledge about the structure of mammalian IGFs and the multiple forms of mRNAs which arise from alternative splicing and promoter sites which arise from gene transcription. Current progress in the immunological measurement of the IGF is reviewed including different strategies for avoiding binding protein interference. The results of measurements of serum IGF-I and IGF-II in fetus and mother and at various stages of postnatal life are described. Existing knowledge of the concentration of these peptides in body fluids and tissues are considered. Last, an attempt is made to indicate circumstances in which the IGFs are exerting their actions in an autocrine/paracrine mode and when endocrine actions predominate. In the latter context it was concluded that an important role for GH action on skeletal tissues via hepatic production of IGF-I and endocrine action of IGF-I on growth cartilage is likely.
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              Feed Matters: Satisfying the Feed Demand of Aquaculture


                Author and article information

                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front. Endocrinol.
                Frontiers in Endocrinology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                27 November 2018
                : 9
                Nutrigenomics and Fish Growth Endocrinology, Institute of Aquaculture Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC) , Castellón, Spain
                Author notes

                Edited by: Oliana Carnevali, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Italy

                Reviewed by: Peggy Biga, University of Alabama at Birmingham, United States; Lluis Tort, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain

                *Correspondence: Jaume Pérez-Sánchez jaime.perez.sanchez@ 123456csic.es

                †Present Address: Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha, Department of Biology, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEI-MAR), University of Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain

                Azucena Bermejo-Nogales, Endocrine Disruption and Toxicity of Contaminants, Department of Environment, INIA, Madrid, Spain

                This article was submitted to Experimental Endocrinology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology

                Copyright © 2018 Pérez-Sánchez, Simó-Mirabet, Naya-Català, Martos-Sitcha, Perera, Bermejo-Nogales, Benedito-Palos and Calduch-Giner.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 08 August 2018
                : 02 November 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 12, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 231, Pages: 24, Words: 17683
                Funded by: Seventh Framework Programme 10.13039/100011102
                Funded by: Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad 10.13039/501100003329
                Funded by: Horizon 2020 Framework Programme 10.13039/100010661

                Endocrinology & Diabetes
                growth hormone,insulin-like growth factors,insulin-like growth factor binding proteins,growth hormone receptors,insulin and igf receptors,sirtuins,oxygen availability,energy status


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