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      IGF1, IGF1R and SHOX Mutation Analysis in Short Children Born Small for Gestational Age and Short Children with Normal Birth Size (Idiopathic Short Stature)

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Because the criteria for genetic screening of short children are unknown, we performed genetic analysis of 199 short children born small for gestational age (SGA) or with normal birth size (idiopathic short stature, ISS). Methods: After selection with a modified scoring system for SHOX and a novel score for IGF1 and IGF1R defects, direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed for SHOX and IGF1R in selected patients, and confirmed by SNP array analysis. Results: In 6 children, gene variants were identified in SHOX, its adjacent pseudoautosomal region (PAR) and IGF1R: a SHOX mutation, terminal 15q deletion, a SHOX and IGF1R defect, a deletion of the Xp22.3 PAR region, and two patients with duplications in the Xp22.3 PAR region. In a seventh patient, steroid sulfatase deficiency was detected because a probe for STS was used as control; this syndrome has not been associated with short stature before. Conclusion: A selection process using clinical scores for SHOX, IGF1 and IGF1R defects followed by genetic testing with MLPA and direct sequencing led to the detection of a SHOX or IGF1R genetic variant in 6% of short children.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Many sequence variants affecting diversity of adult human height.

          Adult human height is one of the classical complex human traits. We searched for sequence variants that affect height by scanning the genomes of 25,174 Icelanders, 2,876 Dutch, 1,770 European Americans and 1,148 African Americans. We then combined these results with previously published results from the Diabetes Genetics Initiative on 3,024 Scandinavians and tested a selected subset of SNPs in 5,517 Danes. We identified 27 regions of the genome with one or more sequence variants showing significant association with height. The estimated effects per allele of these variants ranged between 0.3 and 0.6 cm and, taken together, they explain around 3.7% of the population variation in height. The genes neighboring the identified loci cluster in biological processes related to skeletal development and mitosis. Association to three previously reported loci are replicated in our analyses, and the strongest association was with SNPs in the ZBTB38 gene.
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            Intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal growth failure associated with deletion of the insulin-like growth factor I gene.

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              Consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of children with idiopathic short stature: a summary of the Growth Hormone Research Society, the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society, and the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Workshop.

              Our objective was to summarize important advances in the management of children with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Participants were 32 invited leaders in the field. Evidence was obtained by extensive literature review and from clinical experience. Participants reviewed discussion summaries, voted, and reached a majority decision on each document section. ISS is defined auxologically by a height below -2 sd score (SDS) without findings of disease as evident by a complete evaluation by a pediatric endocrinologist including stimulated GH levels. Magnetic resonance imaging is not necessary in patients with ISS. ISS may be a risk factor for psychosocial problems, but true psychopathology is rare. In the United States and seven other countries, the regulatory authorities approved GH treatment (at doses up to 53 microg/kg.d) for children shorter than -2.25 SDS, whereas in other countries, lower cutoffs are proposed. Aromatase inhibition increases predicted adult height in males with ISS, but adult-height data are not available. Psychological counseling is worthwhile to consider instead of or as an adjunct to hormone treatment. The predicted height may be inaccurate and is not an absolute criterion for GH treatment decisions. The shorter the child, the more consideration should be given to GH. Successful first-year response to GH treatment includes an increase in height SDS of more than 0.3-0.5. The mean increase in adult height in children with ISS attributable to GH therapy (average duration of 4-7 yr) is 3.5-7.5 cm. Responses are highly variable. IGF-I levels may be helpful in assessing compliance and GH sensitivity; levels that are consistently elevated (>2.5 SDS) should prompt consideration of GH dose reduction. GH therapy for children with ISS has a similar safety profile to other GH indications.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRP
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2012
                May 2012
                09 May 2012
                : 77
                : 4
                : 250-260
                Affiliations
                aUniversity Children’s Hospital, Tuebingen, Germany; bLaboratory for Diagnostic Genome Analysis, Center for Human and Clinical Genetics, and cDepartment of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                *Jan M. Wit, MD, PhD, Department of Pediatrics J6S, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, NL–2300 RC Leiden (The Netherlands), Tel. +31 71 526 2824, E-Mail j.m.wit@lumc.nl
                Article
                338341 Horm Res Paediatr 2012;77:250–260
                10.1159/000338341
                22572840
                © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 4, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Original Paper

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