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      The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22.

      Nature

      Species Specificity, Animals, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid, Molecular Sequence Data, Mice, Humans, Human Genome Project, Gene Dosage, DNA, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22, methods, Chromosome Mapping

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          Abstract

          Knowledge of the complete genomic DNA sequence of an organism allows a systematic approach to defining its genetic components. The genomic sequence provides access to the complete structures of all genes, including those without known function, their control elements, and, by inference, the proteins they encode, as well as all other biologically important sequences. Furthermore, the sequence is a rich and permanent source of information for the design of further biological studies of the organism and for the study of evolution through cross-species sequence comparison. The power of this approach has been amply demonstrated by the determination of the sequences of a number of microbial and model organisms. The next step is to obtain the complete sequence of the entire human genome. Here we report the sequence of the euchromatic part of human chromosome 22. The sequence obtained consists of 12 contiguous segments spanning 33.4 megabases, contains at least 545 genes and 134 pseudogenes, and provides the first view of the complex chromosomal landscapes that will be found in the rest of the genome.

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          Most cited references 40

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          A comprehensive genetic map of the human genome based on 5,264 microsatellites.

          The great increase in successful linkage studies in a number of higher eukaryotes during recent years has essentially resulted from major improvements in reference genetic linkage maps, which at present consist of short tandem repeat polymorphisms of simple sequences or microsatellites. We report here the last version of the Généthon human linkage map. This map consists of 5,264 short tandem (AC/TG)n repeat polymorphisms with a mean heterozygosity of 70%. The map spans a sex-averaged genetic distance of 3,699 cM and comprises 2,335 positions, of which 2,032 could be ordered with an odds ratio of at least 1,000:1 against alternative orders. The average interval size is 1.6 cM; 59% of the map is covered by intervals of 2 cM at most and 1% remains in intervals above 10 cM.
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            Genome Sequence of the Nematode C. elegans: A Platform for Investigating Biology

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              The mosaic genome of warm-blooded vertebrates.

              Most of the nuclear genome of warm-blooded vertebrates is a mosaic of very long (much greater than 200 kilobases) DNA segments, the isochores; these isochores are fairly homogeneous in base composition and belong to a small number of major classes distinguished by differences in guanine-cytosine (GC) content. The families of DNA molecules derived from such classes can be separated and used to study the genome distribution of any sequence which can be probed. This approach has revealed (i) that the distribution of genes, integrated viral sequences, and interspersed repeats is highly nonuniform in the genome, and (ii) that the base composition and ratio of CpG to GpC in both coding and noncoding sequences, as well as codon usage, mainly depend on the GC content of the isochores harboring the sequences. The compositional compartmentalization of the genome of warm-blooded vertebrates is discussed with respect to its evolutionary origin, its causes, and its effects on chromosome structure and function.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1038/990031
                10591208

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