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      Diabetes and sexual dysfunction: current perspectives

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          Abstract

          Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in nearly all countries. It has been associated with sexual dysfunction, both in males and in females. Diabetes is an established risk factor for sexual dysfunction in men, as a threefold increased risk of erectile dysfunction was documented in diabetic men, as compared with nondiabetic men. Among women, evidence regarding the association between diabetes and sexual dysfunction are less conclusive, although most studies have reported a higher prevalence of female sexual dysfunction in diabetic women as compared with nondiabetic women. Female sexual function appears to be more related to social and psychological components than to the physiological consequence of diabetes. Hyperglycemia, which is a main determinant of vascular and microvascular diabetic complications, may participate in the pathogenetic mechanisms of sexual dysfunction in diabetes. Moreover, diabetic people may present several clinical conditions, including hypertension, overweight and obesity, metabolic syndrome, cigarette smoking, and atherogenic dyslipidemia, which are themselves risk factors for sexual dysfunction, both in men and in women. The adoption of healthy lifestyles may reduce insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress – all of which are desirable achievements in diabetic patients. Improved well-being may further contribute to reduce and prevent sexual dysfunction in both sexes.

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          Most cited references 113

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          Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030.

          The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people of all ages with diabetes for years 2000 and 2030. Data on diabetes prevalence by age and sex from a limited number of countries were extrapolated to all 191 World Health Organization member states and applied to United Nations' population estimates for 2000 and 2030. Urban and rural populations were considered separately for developing countries. The prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. The total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. The urban population in developing countries is projected to double between 2000 and 2030. The most important demographic change to diabetes prevalence across the world appears to be the increase in the proportion of people >65 years of age. These findings indicate that the "diabetes epidemic" will continue even if levels of obesity remain constant. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, it is likely that these figures provide an underestimate of future diabetes prevalence.
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            Impotence and its medical and psychosocial correlates: results of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study.

            We provide current, normative data on the prevalence of impotence, and its physiological and psychosocial correlates in a general population using results from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. The Massachusetts Male Aging Study was a community based, random sample observational survey of noninstitutionalized men 40 to 70 years old conducted from 1987 to 1989 in cities and towns near Boston, Massachusetts. Blood samples, physiological measures, socio-demographic variables, psychological indexes, and information on health status, medications, smoking and lifestyle were collected by trained interviewers in the subject's home. A self-administered sexual activity questionnaire was used to characterize erectile potency. The combined prevalence of minimal, moderate and complete impotence was 52%. The prevalence of complete impotence tripled from 5 to 15% between subject ages 40 and 70 years. Subject age was the variable most strongly associated with impotence. After adjustment for age, a higher probability of impotence was directly correlated with heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, associated medications, and indexes of anger and depression, and inversely correlated with serum dehydroepiandrosterone, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and an index of dominant personality. Cigarette smoking was associated with a greater probability of complete impotence in men with heart disease and hypertension. We conclude that impotence is a major health concern in light of the high prevalence, is strongly associated with age, has multiple determinants, including some risk factors for vascular disease, and may be due partly to modifiable para-aging phenomena.
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              Development and evaluation of an abridged, 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) as a diagnostic tool for erectile dysfunction.

              An abridged five-item version of the 15-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) was developed (IIEF-5) to diagnose the presence and severity of erectile dysfunction (ED). The five items selected were based on ability to identify the presence or absence of ED and on adherence to the National Institute of Health's definition of ED. These items focused on erectile function and intercourse satisfaction. For 1152 men (1036 with ED, 116 controls) analyzed, a receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that the IIEF-5 is an excellent diagnostic test. Based on equal misclassification rates of ED and no ED, a cutoff score of 21 (range of scores, 5-25) discriminated best (sensitivity=0.98, specificity=0. 88). ED was classified into five severity levels, ranging from none (22-25) through severe (5-7). Substantial agreement existed between the predicted and 'true' ED classes (weighted kappa=0.82). These data suggest that the IIEF-5 possesses favorable properties for detecting the presence and severity of ED.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes
                Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes
                Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7007
                2014
                06 March 2014
                : 7
                : 95-105
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological, Metabolic and Geriatric Sciences, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
                [2 ]Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Katherine Esposito, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases Unit, University Hospital at Second University of Naples, Piazza L Miraglia no 2, 80138 Napoli, Italy, Tel +39 081 566 5031, Fax +39 081 566 5054, Email katherine.esposito@ 123456unina2.it
                Article
                dmso-7-095
                10.2147/DMSO.S36455
                3949699
                © 2014 Maiorino et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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