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      Upregulation of PD-L1 and APE1 is associated with tumorigenesis and poor prognosis of gastric cancer

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          Gastric cancer is a fatal malignancy with a rising incidence rate. Effective methods for early diagnosis, monitoring metastasis, and prognosis are currently unavailable for gastric cancer. In this study, we examined the association of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) expression with the prognosis of gastric cancer.


          The expressions of PD-L1 and APE1 were detected by immunohistochemistry in 107 cases of human gastric carcinoma. The correlation of PD-L1 and APE1 expression with the clinicopathologic features of gastric carcinoma was analyzed by SPSS version 19.0.


          The positive expression rates of PD-L1 and APE1 in gastric cancer tissues were 50.5% (54/107) and 86.9% (93/107), respectively. PD-L1 and APE1 positive expressions were significantly associated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, pathological type, overall survival, and higher T stage. Furthermore, the expression of PD-L1 in highly differentiated gastric cancers was higher than that in poorly differentiated cancers ( P=0.008). Moreover, the expression of APE1 and PD-L1 in gastric cancers was positively correlated ( r=0.336, P<0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that the depth of invasion was a significant prognostic factor (risk ratio 19.91; P=0.000), but there was no significant relationship with PD-L1, APE1, prognosis, and other characteristics.


          The deregulation of PD-L1 and APE1 might contribute to the development and the poor prognosis of gastric cancer. Our findings suggest that high expression of PD-L1 and APE1 is a risk factor of gastric cancer and a new biomarker to predict the prognosis of gastric cancer. Furthermore, our findings suggest that targeting the PD-L1 and APE1 signaling pathways may be a new strategy for cancer immune therapy and targeted therapy for gastric cancer, especially in patients with deep invasion and lymph node metastasis.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Involvement of PD-L1 on tumor cells in the escape from host immune system and tumor immunotherapy by PD-L1 blockade.

           Y Iwai,  M. Ishida,  Y. Tanaka (2002)
          PD-1 is a receptor of the Ig superfamily that negatively regulates T cell antigen receptor signaling by interacting with the specific ligands (PD-L) and is suggested to play a role in the maintenance of self-tolerance. In the present study, we examined possible roles of the PD-1/PD-L system in tumor immunity. Transgenic expression of PD-L1, one of the PD-L, in P815 tumor cells rendered them less susceptible to the specific T cell antigen receptor-mediated lysis by cytotoxic T cells in vitro, and markedly enhanced their tumorigenesis and invasiveness in vivo in the syngeneic hosts as compared with the parental tumor cells that lacked endogenous PD-L. Both effects could be reversed by anti-PD-L1 Ab. Survey of murine tumor lines revealed that all of the myeloma cell lines examined naturally expressed PD-L1. Growth of the myeloma cells in normal syngeneic mice was inhibited significantly albeit transiently by the administration of anti-PD-L1 Ab in vivo and was suppressed completely in the syngeneic PD-1-deficient mice. These results suggest that the expression of PD-L1 can serve as a potent mechanism for potentially immunogenic tumors to escape from host immune responses and that blockade of interaction between PD-1 and PD-L may provide a promising strategy for specific tumor immunotherapy.
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            Costimulatory B7-H1 in renal cell carcinoma patients: Indicator of tumor aggressiveness and potential therapeutic target.

            Expression of B7-H1, a costimulating glycoprotein in the B7 family, is normally restricted to macrophage-lineage cells, providing a potential costimulatory signal source for regulation of T cell activation. In contrast, aberrant expression of B7-H1 by tumor cells has been implicated in impairment of T cell function and survival, resulting in defective host antitumoral immunity. The relationship between tumor-associated B7-H1 and clinical cancer progression is unknown. Herein, we report B7-H1 expression by both renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumors of the kidney and RCC tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. In addition, our analysis of 196 clinical specimens reveals that patients harboring high intratumoral expression levels of B7-H1, contributed by tumor cells alone, lymphocytes alone, or tumor and/or lymphocytes combined, exhibit aggressive tumors and are at markedly increased risk of death from RCC. In fact, patients with high tumor and/or lymphocyte B7-H1 levels are 4.5 times more likely to die from their cancer than patients exhibiting low levels of B7-H1 expression (risk ratio 4.53; 95% confidence interval 1.94-10.56; P < 0.001.) Thus, our study suggests a previously undescribed mechanism whereby RCC may impair host immunity to foster tumor progression. B7-H1 may prove useful as a prognostic variable for RCC patients both pre- and posttreatment. In addition, B7-H1 may represent a promising target to facilitate more favorable responses in patients who require immunotherapy for treatment of advanced RCC.
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              B7-H1 expression on non-small cell lung cancer cells and its relationship with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and their PD-1 expression.

              B7-H1/PD-L1 (B7-H1) and B7-DC/PD-L2 (B7-DC) are ligands for the receptor PD-1, which is known to negatively regulate T-cell activation. In the present study, we investigated the expression of B7-H1 and B7-DC in tumor specimens of non-small cell lung cancer and their relationships with clinicopathological variables and postoperative survival. Furthermore, we examined the correlation between B7-H1 expression on tumor cells and the number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) or PD-1 expression on TILs. The expression of B7-H1 and B7-DC in 52 surgically resected specimens of non-small cell lung cancer was evaluated immunohistochemically. Expression of B7-H1 and B7-DC was focally observed in all non-small cell lung cancer tumor specimens. No relationship was found between the expression of B7-H1 or B7-DC and clinicopathological variables or postoperative survival. However, in the same sections evaluated, significantly fewer TILs were identified in B7-H1-positive tumor regions than in B7-H1-negative tumor regions in a subset of five patients (P = 0.01). Moreover, the percentage of TILs expressing PD-1 was significantly lower in B7-H1-positive tumor regions than in B7-H1-negative tumor regions (P = 0.02). The expression of B7-H1 on tumor cells in local areas reciprocally correlated with the number of TILs, and this may contribute to negative regulation in antitumor immune responses in non-small cell lung cancer.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                16 February 2015
                : 9
                : 901-909
                [1 ]Cancer Center, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Urological Surgery, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Dong Wang, Cancer Center, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, No 10 Changjiang Zhi Rd, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400042, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 23 6875 7151, Fax +86 23 6889 4062, Email dongwang64@ 123456hotmail.com

                *These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2015 Qing et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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