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      Yeasts and filamentous fungi in bottled mineral water and tap water from municipal supplies

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          Abstract

          The main objective of this study was to analyse the occurrence of yeasts and filamentous fungi in drinking water as well as to investigate their correlation with the indicator bacteria of faecal pollution. Yeasts were detected in 36.6% and 11.6% of the bottled mineral on water dispensers and tap water samples from municipal system, respectively. Twenty-one (35.0%) of bottled mineral water and two (3.3%) of tap water samples were positive for filamentous fungi. For bottled mineral water 12 (20.0%) of 60 samples were positive for total coliform, compared with 3(5.0%)out of 60 samples from tap water. The mineral water from dispensers was more contaminated than tap water. Strains belonging to the genera Candida identified to the species level were C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C. albicans. Thus, bottled mineral water from water dispensers and tap water could be considered a possible transmission route for filamentous fungi and yeasts, and could constitute a potential health hazard, mainly to immunocompromised indivuals.

          Translated abstract

          O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de leveduras e fungos filamentosos em água potável, bem como investigar suas correlações com bactérias indicadoras de contaminação fecal. Leveduras foram detectadas em 36,6% e 11,6% das amostras de água mineral de garrafão em dispensadores de água e água de torneira do sistema municipal, respectivamente. Vinte e uma (35,5%) das amostras de água mineral de garrafão e duas (3,3%) das amostras de água de torneira foram positivas para fungos filamentosos. Para água mineral de garrafão, 12 (20.0%) das 60 amostras foram positivas para coliforme total, comparado com 3 (5.0%) das 60 amostras de água de torneira. A água coletada de garrafões de água mineral dos dispensadores foi marcadamente mais contaminada que as amostras de água de torneira. Candida spp identificadas ao nível de espécie foram C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata e C. albicans. Como está sendo reportado, água mineral de garrafão em dispensador e água de torneira pode ser considerada como possíveis vias de transmissão de fungos filamentosos e leveduras, e podem constituir um potencial risco para a saúde, principalmente de pessoas imunocomprometidas.

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          Most cited references35

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          The epidemiology of hematogenous candidiasis caused by different Candida species.

          The medical records of patients with hematogenous candidiasis at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (Houston) between 1988 and 1992 were retrospectively reviewed. There were 491 episodes of infection (6 per 1,000 admissions), 79% of which occurred outside the intensive care unit setting. A significant decrease in incidence was observed among patients with leukemia over the study period, together with a relative decrease in Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis infections and an increase in Candida krusei and possibly Candida glabrata infections. In the multivariate analysis, fluconazole prophylaxis provided strong protection against the development of C. tropicalis infection (odds ratio [OR] = 0.08) and C. albicans infection (OR = 0.15), in comparison with protection against infections due to other species, but it was the single most important determinant for the relative increase in C. krusei (OR = 27.07) and C. glabrata (OR = 5.08) infections. In conclusion, there has been a substantial shift in the epidemiology of hematogenous candidiasis caused by different Candida species in recent years. Fluconazole appears to be playing a major role in this observed shift.
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            Candidemia in cancer patients: a prospective, multicenter surveillance study by the Invasive Fungal Infection Group (IFIG) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC).

            In a surveillance study of candidemia in cancer patients that was conducted by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, 249 episodes were noted; Candida albicans was isolated in 70% (63) of the 90 cases involving patients with solid tumors (tumor patients) and in 36% (58) of the 159 involving those with hematologic disease (hematology patients). Neutropenia in tumor patients and acute leukemia and antifungal prophylaxis in hematology patients were significantly associated with non-albicans candidemia in a multivariate analysis. Overall 30-day mortality was 39% (97 of 249). In a univariate analysis, Candida glabrata was associated with the highest mortality rate (odds ratio, 2.66). Two multivariate analyses showed that mortality was associated with older age and severity of the underlying disease. Among hematology patients, additional factors associated with mortality were allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, septic shock, and lack of antifungal prophylaxis.
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              Candida parapsilosis: epidemiology, pathogenicity, clinical manifestations, and antimicrobial susceptibility.

              J Weems (1992)
              Early reports associated Candida parapsilosis with endocarditis in intravenous narcotic addicts. More recently, this species has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen, with clinical manifestations including fungemia, endocarditis, endophthalmitis, septic arthritis, and peritonitis, all of which usually occur in association with invasive procedures or prosthetic devices. Outbreaks of C. parapsilosis infections have been caused by contamination of hyperalimentation solutions, intravascular pressure monitoring devices, and ophthalmic irrigating solution. Experimental studies have generally shown that C. parapsilosis is less virulent than Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis. However, characteristics of C. parapsilosis that may relate to its increasing occurrence in nosocomial settings include frequent colonization of the skin, particularly the subungual space, and an ability to proliferate in glucose-containing solutions, with a resultant increase in adherence to synthetic materials. Recently developed molecular techniques may facilitate the continued exploration of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of C. parapsilosis infections.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                babt
                Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology
                Braz. arch. biol. technol.
                Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar (Curitiba, PR, Brazil )
                1516-8913
                1678-4324
                January 2007
                : 50
                : 1
                : 1-9
                Affiliations
                [02] Londrina PR orgnameUniversidade Estadual de Londrina orgdiv1Departamento de Microbiologia Brasil
                [03] Maringá PR orgnameUniversidade Estadual de Maringá orgdiv1Departamento de Análises Clínicas Brasil
                [01] Maringá PR orgnameUniversidade Estadual de Maringá orgdiv1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Análises Clínicas Brasil
                Article
                S1516-89132007000100001 S1516-8913(07)05000101
                10.1590/S1516-89132007000100001
                abea6ac8-623e-448d-8ef3-99caace2ec49

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 18 August 2005
                : 06 November 2006
                : 04 May 2005
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 35, Pages: 9
                Product

                SciELO Brazil

                Categories
                Agriculture, Agribusiness and Biotechnology

                indicator bacteria,filamentous fungi,bottled mineral water,Candida,tap water

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