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      Application of adiposity indices to a sample of physically active individuals living in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil Translated title: APLICAÇÃO DE ÍNDICES DE ADIPOSIDADE EM UMA AMOSTRA DE INDIVÍDUOS FÍSICAMENTE ATIVOS RESIDENTES NA CIDADE DE RIBEIRÃO PRETO, SÃO PAULO, BRASIL

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          Abstract

          OBJECTIVE: To compare adiposity indexes in physical activity individuals to evaluate behavior, diagnostic ability and to determine which parameter best reflects and diagnoses body fatness. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on 100 physically active individuals (59% female). The participants were submitted to anthropometric and body composition evaluation; we measured weight, height, circumferences, blood pressure and bioelectrical impedance analysis. A physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ, short version) was applied, as well as a questionnaire about the possible use of nutritional supplementation. The data were statistically analyzed, with significance level set at p <0.05. RESULTS: Mean age, height, weight and BMI were 24.2 ± 6.65 years, 169.5 ± 8.94 cm, 69.1 ± 14.83 kg and 23.9 ± 4.19 kg/m2, respectively, with a significant difference between the genders, except for age. Most of the subjects were in the normal weight range, with a BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2, and were very active. BMIfat correlated better with body fat for males (r = 0.896) and females (r = 0.935), followed by BMI (0.689 and 0.767, respectively) and BAI (0.590 and 0.718). CONCLUSIONS: Adiposity indexes are viable alternatives for the diagnosis of obesity and should be more explored as fast, practical and low cost measures in clinical practice.

          Translated abstract

          OBJETIVO: comparar os índices de adiposidade em indivíduos praticantes de atividade física para avaliar o comportamento, a capacidade diagnóstica e determinar qual parâmetro melhor reflete e diagnostica a adiposidade corporal. MÉTODOS: Um estudo transversal foi realizado em 100 indivíduos fisicamente ativos (59% mulheres). Os participantes foram submetidos à avaliação antropométrica e de composição corporal, sendo aferidos peso, estatura, circunferências, pressão arterial e análise de impedância bioelétrica. Foi aplicado um questionário de atividade física (IPAQ, versão curta), além de um questionário sobre o possível uso da suplementação nutricional. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente, com nível de significância estabelecido em p <0,05. RESULTADOS: as médias de idade, estatura, peso e IMC foram 24,2 ± 6,65 anos, 169,5 ± 8,94 cm, 69,1 ± 14,83 kg e 23,9 ± 4,19 kg/m2, respectivamente, com diferença significativa entre os gêneros, exceto para idade. A maioria dos sujeitos estava na faixa de peso normal, com um IMC de 18,5 a 24,9 kg/m2, e eram muito ativos. O BMIfat foi melhor correlacionado com a gordura corporal para homens (r = 0,896) e mulheres (r = 0,935), seguido pelo IMC (0,689 e 0,767, respectivamente) e BAI (0,590 e 0,718). CONCLUSÕES: Os índices de adiposidade são alternativas viáveis para o diagnóstico da obesidade e devem ser mais explorados como medidas rápidas, práticas e de baixo custo na prática clínica.

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          Most cited references 12

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          A better index of body adiposity.

          Obesity is a growing problem in the United States and throughout the world. It is a risk factor for many chronic diseases. The BMI has been used to assess body fat for almost 200 years. BMI is known to be of limited accuracy, and is different for males and females with similar %body adiposity. Here, we define an alternative parameter, the body adiposity index (BAI = ((hip circumference)/((height)(1.5))-18)). The BAI can be used to reflect %body fat for adult men and women of differing ethnicities without numerical correction. We used a population study, the "BetaGene" study, to develop the new index of body adiposity. %Body fat, as measured by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), was used as a "gold standard" for validation. Hip circumference (R = 0.602) and height (R = -0.524) are strongly correlated with %body fat and therefore chosen as principal anthropometric measures on which we base BAI. The BAI measure was validated in the "Triglyceride and Cardiovascular Risk in African-Americans (TARA)" study of African Americans. Correlation between DXA-derived %adiposity and the BAI was R = 0.85 for TARA with a concordance of C_b = 0.95. BAI can be measured without weighing, which may render it useful in settings where measuring accurate body weight is problematic. In summary, we have defined a new parameter, the BAI, which can be calculated from hip circumference and height only. It can be used in the clinical setting even in remote locations with very limited access to reliable scales. The BAI estimates %adiposity directly.
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            A New Body Shape Index Predicts Mortality Hazard Independently of Body Mass Index

            Background Obesity, typically quantified in terms of Body Mass Index (BMI) exceeding threshold values, is considered a leading cause of premature death worldwide. For given body size (BMI), it is recognized that risk is also affected by body shape, particularly as a marker of abdominal fat deposits. Waist circumference (WC) is used as a risk indicator supplementary to BMI, but the high correlation of WC with BMI makes it hard to isolate the added value of WC. Methods and Findings We considered a USA population sample of 14,105 non-pregnant adults ( ) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 with follow-up for mortality averaging 5 yr (828 deaths). We developed A Body Shape Index (ABSI) based on WC adjusted for height and weight: ABSI had little correlation with height, weight, or BMI. Death rates increased approximately exponentially with above average baseline ABSI (overall regression coefficient of per standard deviation of ABSI [95% confidence interval: – ]), whereas elevated death rates were found for both high and low values of BMI and WC. ( – ) of the population mortality hazard was attributable to high ABSI, compared to ( – ) for BMI and ( – ) for WC. The association of death rate with ABSI held even when adjusted for other known risk factors including smoking, diabetes, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol. ABSI correlation with mortality hazard held across the range of age, sex, and BMI, and for both white and black ethnicities (but not for Mexican ethnicity), and was not weakened by excluding deaths from the first 3 yr of follow-up. Conclusions Body shape, as measured by ABSI, appears to be a substantial risk factor for premature mortality in the general population derivable from basic clinical measurements. ABSI expresses the excess risk from high WC in a convenient form that is complementary to BMI and to other known risk factors.
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              Anthropometric measurements: application in hospitalized patients.

               S Heymsfield (1990)
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Ribeirão Preto orgnameUniversidade de São Paulo orgdiv1Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto orgdiv2Departamento de Clínica Médica Brazil
                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                medical
                MedicalExpress
                MedicalExpress (São Paulo, online)
                Mavera Edições Técnicas e Científicas Ltda (São Paulo, SP, Brazil )
                2318-8111
                2358-0429
                October 2018
                : 5
                : 0
                S2358-04292018000100303 10.5935/medicalexpress.2018.mo.004

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 16, Pages: 0
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                Product Information: SciELO Brazil

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