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      Exosomal Circ-XIAP Promotes Docetaxel Resistance in Prostate Cancer by Regulating miR-1182/TPD52 Axis


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          Exosomal circular RNAs (circRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa) and chemotherapy resistance. This research aimed to explore the function and molecular mechanism of circRNA X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (circ-XIAP) in docetaxel (DTX) resistance of PCa.


          The expression of circ-XIAP, microRNA-1182 (miR-1182), tumor protein D52 (TPD52) was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Exosomes were detected with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cluster of differentiation 63 (CD63), cluster of differentiation 9 (CD9) and TPD52 protein levels were detected by Western blot (WB). FIfty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50) of DTX and cell viability were determined using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Colony formation assay was applied to assess colony-forming ability. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Transwell assay was used for measuring cell migration and invasion. Dual-reporter luciferase assay was performed to confirm the interaction between miR-1182 and circ-XIAP or TPD52. The role of circ-XIAP in vivo was confirmed via the mice xenograft model.


          Circ-XIAP and TPD52 were upregulated and miR-1182 was downregulated in DTX-resistant PCa tissue specimens and cell lines. Circ-XIAP was also overexpressed in exosomes from DTX-resistant cells and could be transmitted via exosomes. Circ-XIAP knockdown enhanced DTX sensitivity by suppressing DTX-resistant cell proliferation, migration and invasion and inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Circ-XIAP directly targeted miR-1182, and the effects of circ-XIAP knockdown were reversed by downregulating miR-1182 in DTX-resistant cells. TPD52 was the target of miR-1182, and its upregulation weakened the promotive effect of miR-1182 on DTX sensitivity. Importantly, circ-XIAP depletion inhibited tumor growth and increased DTX sensitivity in vivo.


          Exosomal circ-XIAP promoted DTX resistance of PCa by regulating miR-1182/TPD52 axis, providing a promising therapeutic target for PCa chemotherapy.

          Most cited references42

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          Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

          This article provides a status report on the global burden of cancer worldwide using the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with a focus on geographic variability across 20 world regions. There will be an estimated 18.1 million new cancer cases (17.0 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 9.6 million cancer deaths (9.5 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) in 2018. In both sexes combined, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (11.6% of the total cases) and the leading cause of cancer death (18.4% of the total cancer deaths), closely followed by female breast cancer (11.6%), prostate cancer (7.1%), and colorectal cancer (6.1%) for incidence and colorectal cancer (9.2%), stomach cancer (8.2%), and liver cancer (8.2%) for mortality. Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among males, followed by prostate and colorectal cancer (for incidence) and liver and stomach cancer (for mortality). Among females, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, followed by colorectal and lung cancer (for incidence), and vice versa (for mortality); cervical cancer ranks fourth for both incidence and mortality. The most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, however, substantially vary across countries and within each country depending on the degree of economic development and associated social and life style factors. It is noteworthy that high-quality cancer registry data, the basis for planning and implementing evidence-based cancer control programs, are not available in most low- and middle-income countries. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development is an international partnership that supports better estimation, as well as the collection and use of local data, to prioritize and evaluate national cancer control efforts. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2018;0:1-31. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
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            Circular RNAs are a large class of animal RNAs with regulatory potency.

            Circular RNAs (circRNAs) in animals are an enigmatic class of RNA with unknown function. To explore circRNAs systematically, we sequenced and computationally analysed human, mouse and nematode RNA. We detected thousands of well-expressed, stable circRNAs, often showing tissue/developmental-stage-specific expression. Sequence analysis indicated important regulatory functions for circRNAs. We found that a human circRNA, antisense to the cerebellar degeneration-related protein 1 transcript (CDR1as), is densely bound by microRNA (miRNA) effector complexes and harbours 63 conserved binding sites for the ancient miRNA miR-7. Further analyses indicated that CDR1as functions to bind miR-7 in neuronal tissues. Human CDR1as expression in zebrafish impaired midbrain development, similar to knocking down miR-7, suggesting that CDR1as is a miRNA antagonist with a miRNA-binding capacity ten times higher than any other known transcript. Together, our data provide evidence that circRNAs form a large class of post-transcriptional regulators. Numerous circRNAs form by head-to-tail splicing of exons, suggesting previously unrecognized regulatory potential of coding sequences.
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              Circular RNA is enriched and stable in exosomes: a promising biomarker for cancer diagnosis.


                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                03 May 2021
                : 15
                : 1835-1849
                [1 ]College of Medical, Huanghuai University , Zhumadian, Henan, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Urology, The Central Hospital of Zhumadian , Zhumadian, Henan, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hui Zhang College of Medical, Huanghuai University , No. 2628, Mountain Panlong Road, Zhumdian, 463000, Henan, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-0396-2853503 Email cecile98@163.com
                © 2021 Zhang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 04 January 2021
                : 27 March 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 9, References: 42, Pages: 15
                Funded by: no funding to report;
                There is no funding to report.
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                prostate cancer,exosomes,circ-xiap,mir-1182,tpd52
                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                prostate cancer, exosomes, circ-xiap, mir-1182, tpd52


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