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      Control of cellular responses to mechanical cues through YAP/TAZ regulation

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      Journal of Biological Chemistry
      American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB)

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          Abstract

          To perceive their three-dimensional environment, cells and tissues must be able to sense and interpret various physical forces like shear, tensile, and compression stress. These forces can be generated both internally and externally in response to physical properties, like substrate stiffness, cell contractility, and forces generated by adjacent cells. Mechanical cues have important roles in cell fate decisions regarding proliferation, survival, and differentiation as well as the processes of tissue regeneration and wound repair. Aberrant remodeling of the extracellular space and/or defects in properly responding to mechanical cues likely contributes to various disease states, such as fibrosis, muscle diseases, and cancer. Mechanotransduction involves the sensing and translation of mechanical forces into biochemical signals, like activation of specific genes and signaling cascades that enable cells to adapt to their physical environment. The signaling pathways involved in mechanical signaling are highly complex, but numerous studies have highlighted a central role for the Hippo pathway and other signaling networks in regulating the YAP and TAZ (YAP/TAZ) proteins to mediate the effects of mechanical stimuli on cellular behavior. How mechanical cues control YAP/TAZ has been poorly understood. However, rapid progress in the last few years is beginning to reveal a surprisingly diverse set of pathways for controlling YAP/TAZ. In this review, we will focus on how mechanical perturbations are sensed through changes in the actin cytoskeleton and mechanosensors at focal adhesions, adherens junctions, and the nuclear envelope to regulate YAP/TAZ.

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          Most cited references89

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          Regulation of the Hippo-YAP pathway by G-protein-coupled receptor signaling.

          The Hippo pathway is crucial in organ size control, and its dysregulation contributes to tumorigenesis. However, upstream signals that regulate the mammalian Hippo pathway have remained elusive. Here, we report that the Hippo pathway is regulated by G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Serum-borne lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphophate (S1P) act through G12/13-coupled receptors to inhibit the Hippo pathway kinases Lats1/2, thereby activating YAP and TAZ transcription coactivators, which are oncoproteins repressed by Lats1/2. YAP and TAZ are involved in LPA-induced gene expression, cell migration, and proliferation. In contrast, stimulation of Gs-coupled receptors by glucagon or epinephrine activates Lats1/2 kinase activity, thereby inhibiting YAP function. Thus, GPCR signaling can either activate or inhibit the Hippo-YAP pathway depending on the coupled G protein. Our study identifies extracellular diffusible signals that modulate the Hippo pathway and also establishes the Hippo-YAP pathway as a critical signaling branch downstream of GPCR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            alpha-Catenin as a tension transducer that induces adherens junction development.

            Adherens junctions (AJs), which are organized by adhesion proteins and the underlying actin cytoskeleton, probably sense pulling forces from adjacent cells and modulate opposing forces to maintain tissue integrity, but the regulatory mechanism remains unknown at the molecular level. Although the possibility that alpha-catenin acts as a direct linker between the membrane and the actin cytoskeleton for AJ formation and function has been minimized, here we show that alpha-catenin recruits vinculin, another main actin-binding protein of AJs, through force-dependent changes in alpha-catenin conformation. We identified regions in the alpha-catenin molecule that are required for its force-dependent binding of vinculin by introducing mutant alpha-catenin into cells and using in vitro binding assays. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis for alpha-catenin mobility and the existence of an antibody recognizing alpha-catenin in a force-dependent manner further supported the notion that alpha-catenin is a tension transducer that translates mechanical stimuli into a chemical response, resulting in AJ development.
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              Adherens junctions: from molecules to morphogenesis.

              How adhesive interactions between cells generate and maintain animal tissue structure remains one of the most challenging and long-standing questions in cell and developmental biology. Adherens junctions (AJs) and the cadherin-catenin complexes at their core are therefore the subjects of intense research. Recent work has greatly advanced our understanding of the molecular organization of AJs and how cadherin-catenin complexes engage actin, microtubules and the endocytic machinery. As a result, we have gained important insights into the molecular mechanisms of tissue morphogenesis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Biological Chemistry
                J. Biol. Chem.
                American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB)
                0021-9258
                1083-351X
                November 15 2019
                November 15 2019
                November 15 2019
                October 08 2019
                : 294
                : 46
                : 17693-17706
                Article
                10.1074/jbc.REV119.007963
                6873206
                31594864
                ac00f06f-22cd-44f8-a771-d07f2efd5093
                © 2019
                History

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