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      Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction


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          Background and Aims

          Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. This study assessed the risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction in college students and compared these factors to those linked to Internet addiction.


          College students ( N = 448) in South Korea completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale, the Young’s Internet Addiction Test, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Beck Depression Inventory I, the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (Trait Version), the Character Strengths Test, and the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analyses.


          The risk factors for smartphone addiction were female gender, Internet use, alcohol use, and anxiety, while the protective factors were depression and temperance. In contrast, the risk factors for Internet addiction were male gender, smartphone use, anxiety, and wisdom/knowledge, while the protective factor was courage.


          These differences may result from unique features of smartphones, such as high availability and primary use as a tool for interpersonal relationships.


          Our findings will aid clinicians in distinguishing between predictive factors for smartphone and Internet addiction and can consequently be utilized in the prevention and treatment of smartphone addiction.

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          Most cited references44

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          Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC).

          Resilience may be viewed as a measure of stress coping ability and, as such, could be an important target of treatment in anxiety, depression, and stress reactions. We describe a new rating scale to assess resilience. The Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (CD-RISC) comprises of 25 items, each rated on a 5-point scale (0-4), with higher scores reflecting greater resilience. The scale was administered to subjects in the following groups: community sample, primary care outpatients, general psychiatric outpatients, clinical trial of generalized anxiety disorder, and two clinical trials of PTSD. The reliability, validity, and factor analytic structure of the scale were evaluated, and reference scores for study samples were calculated. Sensitivity to treatment effects was examined in subjects from the PTSD clinical trials. The scale demonstrated good psychometric properties and factor analysis yielded five factors. A repeated measures ANOVA showed that an increase in CD-RISC score was associated with greater improvement during treatment. Improvement in CD-RISC score was noted in proportion to overall clinical global improvement, with greatest increase noted in subjects with the highest global improvement and deterioration in CD-RISC score in those with minimal or no global improvement. The CD-RISC has sound psychometric properties and distinguishes between those with greater and lesser resilience. The scale demonstrates that resilience is modifiable and can improve with treatment, with greater improvement corresponding to higher levels of global improvement. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            An inventory for measuring depression.

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              Development of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): WHO Collaborative Project on Early Detection of Persons with Harmful Alcohol Consumption-II


                Author and article information

                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                December 2015
                21 December 2015
                : 4
                : 4
                : 308-314
                [ 1 ] Korea Institute on Behavioral Addictions , True Mind Mental Health Clinic, Seoul, South Korea
                [ 2 ]Health Care & Information Research Institute, Namseoul University , Cheonan, South Korea
                [ 3 ]Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea , Seoul, South Korea
                [ 4 ]Department of Psychiatry, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center , Seoul, South Korea
                [ 5 ] Department of Electrical and Information Engineering , SeoulTech, Seoul, South Korea
                [ 6 ]Department of Social Welfare, Dongshin University , Jeollanam-do, South Korea
                [ 7 ]Department of Counseling and Psychotherapy, Konyang University , Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea
                [ 8 ] Myongji Hospital , Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
                [ 9 ]Chungmugong Leadership Center, Naval Education and Training Command , Republic of Korea Navy, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: HyunChul Youn, MD; Chungmugong Leadership Center, Naval Education and Training Command, Republic of Korea Navy, 111, Jinhui-ro P.O. Box 211, Jinhae-gu, Changwon-si, Gyeongsangnam-do 645-796, South Korea; Phone: +82 55-549-2975; E-mail: dryounh@ 123456naver.com
                © 2015 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                : 28 March 2015
                : 17 September 2015
                : 05 October 2015
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 44, Pages: 23
                Funding sources: Funding for this study was provided by a grant from the Korea Health Technology R&D Project, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (A120157). The funders had no role in the study design, collection, analysis or interpretation of data, writing of the manuscript, and the decision to submit the paper for publication.
                Full-Length Report

                Medicine,Psychology,Social & Behavioral Sciences,Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                smartphone addiction,gender differences,Internet addiction,character strengths,resilience


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