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      Elevated APOBEC3B expression drives a kataegic-like mutation signature and replication stress-related therapeutic vulnerabilities in p53-defective cells

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          Elevated APOBEC3B expression in tumours correlates with a kataegic pattern of localised hypermutation. We assessed the cellular phenotypes associated with high-level APOBEC3B expression and the influence of p53 status on these phenotypes using an isogenic system.


          We used RNA interference of p53 in cells with inducible APOBEC3B and assessed DNA damage response (DDR) biomarkers. The mutational effects of APOBEC3B were assessed using whole-genome sequencing. In vitro small-molecule inhibitor sensitivity profiling was used to identify candidate therapeutic vulnerabilities.


          Although APOBEC3B expression increased the incorporation of genomic uracil, invoked DDR biomarkers and caused cell cycle arrest, inactivation of p53 circumvented APOBEC3B-induced cell cycle arrest without reversing the increase in genomic uracil or DDR biomarkers. The continued expression of APOBEC3B in p53-defective cells not only caused a kataegic mutational signature but also caused hypersensitivity to small-molecule DDR inhibitors (ATR, CHEK1, CHEK2, PARP, WEE1 inhibitors) as well as cisplatin/ATR inhibitor and ATR/PARP inhibitor combinations.


          Although loss of p53 might allow tumour cells to tolerate elevated APOBEC3B expression, continued expression of this enzyme might impart a number of therapeutic vulnerabilities upon tumour cells.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Specific proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase: an early marker of chemotherapy-induced apoptosis.

          Apoptosis is a morphologically and biochemically distinct form of cell death that occurs under a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. In the present study, the proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (pADPRp) during the course of chemotherapy-induced apoptosis was examined. Treatment of HL-60 human leukemia cells with the topoisomerase II-directed anticancer agent etoposide resulted in morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis. Endonucleolytic degradation of DNA to generate nucleosomal fragments occurred simultaneously. Western blotting with epitope-specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies revealed that these characteristic apoptotic changes were accompanied by early, quantitative cleavage of the M(r) 116,000 pADPRp polypeptide to an M(r) approximately 25,000 fragment containing the amino-terminal DNA-binding domain of pADPRp and an M(r) approximately 85,000 fragment containing the automodification and catalytic domains. Activity blotting revealed that the M(r) approximately 85,000 fragment retained basal pADPRp activity but was not activated by exogenous nicked DNA. Similar cleavage of pADPRp was observed after exposure of HL-60 cells to a variety of chemotherapeutic agents including cis-diaminedichloroplatinum(II), colcemid, 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, and methotrexate; to gamma-irradiation; or to the protein synthesis inhibitors puromycin or cycloheximide. Similar changes were observed in MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer cells treated with trifluorothymidine or 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine and in gamma-irradiated or glucocorticoid-treated rat thymocytes undergoing apoptosis. Treatment with several compounds (tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone, tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone, N-ethylmaleimide, iodoacetamide) prevented both the proteolytic cleavage of pADPRp and the internucleosomal fragmentation of DNA. The results suggest that proteolytic cleavage of pADPRp, in addition to being an early marker of chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, might reflect more widespread proteolysis that is a critical biochemical event early during the process of physiological cell death.
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            An anthropoid-specific locus of orphan C to U RNA-editing enzymes on chromosome 22.

            The cytidine (C) to uridine (U) editing of apolipoprotein (apo) B mRNA is mediated by tissue-specific, RNA-binding cytidine deaminase APOBEC1. APOBEC1 is structurally homologous to Escherichia coli cytidine deaminase (ECCDA), but has evolved specific features required for RNA substrate binding and editing. A signature sequence for APOBEC1 has been used to identify other members of this family. One of these genes, designated APOBEC2, is found on chromosome 6. Another gene corresponds to the activation-induced deaminase (AID) gene, which is located adjacent to APOBEC1 on chromosome 12. Seven additional genes, or pseudogenes (designated APOBEC3A to 3G), are arrayed in tandem on chromosome 22. Not present in rodents, this locus is apparently an anthropoid-specific expansion of the APOBEC family. The conclusion that these new genes encode orphan C to U RNA-editing enzymes of the APOBEC family comes from similarity in amino acid sequence with APOBEC1, conserved intron/exon organization, tissue-specific expression, homodimerization, and zinc and RNA binding similar to APOBEC1. Tissue-specific expression of these genes in a variety of cell lines, along with other evidence, suggests a role for these enzymes in growth or cell cycle control.
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              Retroviral restriction by APOBEC proteins.

              A powerful mechanism of vertebrate innate immunity has been discovered in the past year, in which APOBEC proteins inhibit retroviruses by deaminating cytosine residues in nascent retroviral cDNA. To thwart this cellular defence, HIV encodes Vif, a small protein that mediates APOBEC degradation. Therefore, the balance between APOBECs and Vif might be a crucial determinant of the outcome of retroviral infection. Vertebrates have up to 11 different APOBEC proteins, with primates having the most. APOBEC proteins include AID, a probable DNA mutator that is responsible for immunoglobulin-gene diversification, and APOBEC1, an RNA editor with antiretroviral activities. This APOBEC abundance might help to tip the balance in favour of cellular defences.

                Author and article information

                Br J Cancer
                Br. J. Cancer
                British Journal of Cancer
                Nature Publishing Group
                27 June 2017
                23 May 2017
                27 June 2017
                : 117
                : 1
                : 113-123
                [1 ]The CRUK Gene Function Laboratory and The Breast Cancer Now Toby Robins Breast Cancer Research Centre, The Institute of Cancer Research , London SW3 6JB, UK
                [2 ]FACS Facility, The Institute of Cancer Research , London SW3 6JB, UK
                [3 ]Department of Applied Biotechnology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics , Műegyetem rkp 3, Budapest H-1111, Hungary
                [4 ]Institute of Enzymology, RCNS, Hungarian Academy of Sciences , Magyar Tudósok Str. 2, Budapest H-1117, Hungary
                [5 ]Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, University of Minnesota , Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
                Author notes

                Current address: UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Centre, San Francisco, California 94158, USA.

                Copyright © 2017 The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/

                Genetics & Genomics

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

                apobec3b, dna damage, mutation signature, drug sensitivity, cell cycle


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