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      Ichnotaxonomy and ichnostratigraphy of chambered trace fossils in palaeosols attributed to coleopterans, ants and termites

      Geological Society, London, Special Publications

      Geological Society of London

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          Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present.

          Since 65 million years ago (Ma), Earth's climate has undergone a significant and complex evolution, the finer details of which are now coming to light through investigations of deep-sea sediment cores. This evolution includes gradual trends of warming and cooling driven by tectonic processes on time scales of 10(5) to 10(7) years, rhythmic or periodic cycles driven by orbital processes with 10(4)- to 10(6)-year cyclicity, and rare rapid aberrant shifts and extreme climate transients with durations of 10(3) to 10(5) years. Here, recent progress in defining the evolution of global climate over the Cenozoic Era is reviewed. We focus primarily on the periodic and anomalous components of variability over the early portion of this era, as constrained by the latest generation of deep-sea isotope records. We also consider how this improved perspective has led to the recognition of previously unforeseen mechanisms for altering climate.
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            Insect diversity in the fossil record.

            Insects possess a surprisingly extensive fossil record. Compilation of the geochronologic ranges of insect families demonstrates that their diversity exceeds that of preserved vertebrate tetrapods through 91 percent of their evolutionary history. The great diversity of insects was achieved not by high origination rates but rather by low extinction rates comparable to the low rates of slowly evolving marine invertebrate groups. The great radiation of modern insects began 245 million years ago and was not accelerated by the expansion of angiosperms during the Cretaceous period. The basic trophic machinery of insects was in place nearly 100 million years before angiosperms appeared in the fossil record.
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              Biogeography of the Bees

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Geological Society, London, Special Publications
                Geological Society, London, Special Publications
                Geological Society of London
                0305-8719
                2041-4927
                January 01 2004
                2004
                2004
                January 01 2004
                : 228
                : 1
                : 419-453
                Article
                10.1144/GSL.SP.2004.228.01.19
                © 2004

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