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      In Vitro Susceptibilities of Wild and Drug Resistant Leishmania donovani Amastigote Stages to Andrographolide Nanoparticle: Role of Vitamin E Derivative TPGS for Nanoparticle Efficacy


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          Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic protozoan infection in humans associated with significant global morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need to develop drugs and strategy that will improve therapeutic response for effective clinical treatment of drug resistant VL. To address this need, andrographolide (AG) nanoparticles were designed with P-gp efflux inhibitor vitamin E TPGS (D-α-tocopheryl polyethyleneglycol 1000 succinate) for sensitivity against drug resistant Leishmania strains. AG loaded PLGA (50∶50) nanoparticles (AGnps) stabilized by vitamin E TPGS were prepared for delivery into macrophage cells infested with sensitive and drug resistant amastigotes of Leishmania parasites. Physico-chemical characterization of AGnps by photon correlation spectroscopy exhibited an average particle size of 179.6 nm, polydispersity index of 0.245 and zeta potential of −37.6 mV. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy visualization revealed spherical nanoparticles with smooth surfaces. AGnps displayed sustained AG release up to 288 hours as well as minimal particle aggregation and drug loss even after three months study period. Antileishmanial activity as revealed from selectivity index in wild-type strain was found to be significant for AGnp with TPGS in about one-tenth of the dosage of the free AG and one-third of the dosage of the AGnp without TPGS. Similar observations were also found in case of in vitro generated drug resistant and field isolated resistant strains of Leishmania. Cytotoxicity of AGnp with and without TPGS was significantly less than standard antileishmanial chemotherapeutics like amphotericin B, paromomycin or sodium stibogluconate. Macrophage uptake of AGnps was almost complete within one hour as evident from fluorescent microscopy studies. Thus, based on these observations, it can be concluded that the low-selectivity of AG in in vitro generated drug resistant and field isolated resistant strains was improved in case of AG nanomedicines designed with vitamin E TPGS.

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          Cremophor EL: the drawbacks and advantages of vehicle selection for drug formulation.

          Cremophor EL (CrEL) is a formulation vehicle used for various poorly-water soluble drugs, including the anticancer agent paclitaxel (Taxol). In contrast to earlier reports, CrEL is not an inert vehicle, but exerts a range of biological effects, some of which have important clinical implications. Its use has been associated with severe anaphylactoid hypersensitivity reactions, hyperlipidaemia, abnormal lipoprotein patterns, aggregation of erythrocytes and peripheral neuropathy. The pharmacokinetic behaviour of CrEL is dose-independent, although its clearance is highly influenced by duration of the infusion. This is particularly important since CrEL can affect the disposition of various drugs by changing the unbound drug concentration through micellar encapsulation. In addition, it has been shown that CrEL, as an integral component of paclitaxel chemotherapy, modifies the toxicity profile of certain anticancer agents given concomitantly, by mechanisms other than kinetic interference. A clear understanding of the biological and pharmacological role of CrEL is essential to help oncologists avoid side-effects associated with the use of paclitaxel or other agents using this vehicle. With the present development of various new anticancer agents, it is recommended that alternative formulation approaches should be pursued to allow a better control of the toxicity of the treatment and the pharmacological interactions related to the use of CrEL.
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            Nano/micro technologies for delivering macromolecular therapeutics using poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) and its derivatives.

            Biodegradable nano/microparticles of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and PLGA-based polymers are widely explored as carriers for controlled delivery of macromolecular therapeutics such as proteins, peptides, vaccines, genes, antigens, growth factors, etc. These devices are mainly produced by emulsion or double-emulsion technique followed by solvent evaporation or spray drying. Drug encapsulation, particle size, additives added during formulation, molecular weight, ratio of lactide to glycolide moieties in PLGA and surface morphology could influence the release characteristics. Encapsulation efficiency and release rates through nano/microparticle-mediated drug delivery devices can be optimized to improve their therapeutic efficacy. In this review, important findings of the past decade on the encapsulation and release profiles of macromolecular therapeutics from PLGA and PLGA-based nano/microparticles are discussed critically in relation to nature and type of bioactive molecule, carrier polymer and experimental variables that influence the delivery of macromolecular therapeutics. Even though extensive research on biodegradable microparticles containing macromolecular drugs has greatly advanced to the level of production know-how, the effects of critical parameters influencing drug encapsulation are not sufficiently investigated for nano-scaled carriers. The present review attempts to address some important data on nano/microparticle-based delivery systems of PLGA and PLGA-derived polymers with reference to macromolecular drugs.
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                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                10 December 2013
                : 8
                : 12
                [1 ]Division of Medicinal Biochemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
                [2 ]Department of Chemical Technology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
                The Ohio State University, United States of America
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: TB AM. Performed the experiments: SM PR SD AH. Analyzed the data: SM PR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TB AM SM PR. Wrote the paper: SM PR TB.


                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 11
                This work was supported by a grant from Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi, India (Grant No.: AMR/48/2011-ECD-I). Dr. Subhasish Mondal was also awarded Research Associateship from ICMR to carry out this research work. Research Associateship to Dr. Partha Roy and Senior Research Fellowships to Suvadra Das from Council of Scientific and Industrial Research are also gratefully acknowledged. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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