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      A rare complication of percutaneous coronary intervention: Coronary pseudoaneurysm formation


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          Coronary pseudoaneurysms (CPAs) are rare complications developed after percutaneous coronary interventions. They may cause stent thrombosis, distal embolization, and coronary rupture leading to cardiac tamponade. Therefore, high-risk CPA should be promptly treated after diagnosis. They can be managed with percutaneous or surgical intervention. Herein, we aimed to present a patient who developed CPA 3 weeks after percutaneous coronary intervention and successfully treated with percutaneous intervention using a covered stent.

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          A polymer-based, paclitaxel-eluting stent in patients with coronary artery disease.

          Restenosis after coronary stenting necessitates repeated percutaneous or surgical revascularization procedures. The delivery of paclitaxel to the site of vascular injury may reduce the incidence of neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis. At 73 U.S. centers, we enrolled 1314 patients who were receiving a stent in a single, previously untreated coronary-artery stenosis (vessel diameter, 2.5 to 3.75 mm; lesion length, 10 to 28 mm) in a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. A total of 652 patients were randomly assigned to receive a bare-metal stent, and 662 to receive an identical-appearing, slow-release, polymer-based, paclitaxel-eluting stent. Angiographic follow-up was prespecified at nine months in 732 patients. In terms of base-line characteristics, the two groups were well matched. Diabetes mellitus was present in 24.2 percent of patients; the mean reference-vessel diameter was 2.75 mm, and the mean lesion length was 13.4 mm. A mean of 1.08 stents (length, 21.8 mm) were implanted per patient. The rate of ischemia-driven target-vessel revascularization at nine months was reduced from 12.0 percent with the implantation of a bare-metal stent to 4.7 percent with the implantation of a paclitaxel-eluting stent (relative risk, 0.39; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.59; P<0.001). Target-lesion revascularization was required in 3.0 percent of the group that received a paclitaxel-eluting stent, as compared with 11.3 percent of the group that received a bare-metal stent (relative risk, 0.27; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.16 to 0.43; P<0.001). The rate of angiographic restenosis was reduced from 26.6 percent to 7.9 percent with the paclitaxel-eluting stent (relative risk, 0.30; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.19 to 0.46; P<0.001). The nine-month composite rates of death from cardiac causes or myocardial infarction (4.7 percent and 4.3 percent, respectively) and stent thrombosis (0.6 percent and 0.8 percent, respectively) were similar in the group that received a paclitaxel-eluting stent and the group that received a bare-metal stent. As compared with bare-metal stents, the slow-release, polymer-based, paclitaxel-eluting stent is safe and markedly reduces the rates of clinical and angiographic restenosis at nine months. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Comparison of a polymer-based paclitaxel-eluting stent with a bare metal stent in patients with complex coronary artery disease: a randomized controlled trial.

            Compared with bare metal stents, drug-eluting stents reduce restenosis in noncomplex lesions. The utility of drug-eluting stents has not been evaluated in more difficult stenoses. To investigate the safety and efficacy of the polymer-based, slow-release paclitaxel-eluting stent in a patient population with more complex lesions than previously studied. Prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter randomized trial conducted from February 2003 to March 2004 at 66 academic and community-based institutions with 1156 patients who underwent stent implantation in a single coronary artery stenosis (vessel diameter, 2.25-4.0 mm; lesion length, 10-46 mm), including 664 patients (57.4%) with complex or previously unstudied lesions (requiring 2.25-mm, 4.0-mm, and/or multiple stents) and 9-month clinical and angiographic follow-up. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 1 or more bare metal stents (n = 579) or identical-appearing paclitaxel-eluting stents (n = 577). Ischemia-driven target vessel revascularization at 9 months. Baseline characteristics were well matched. Diabetes was present in 31% of patients. The mean (SD) reference vessel diameter was 2.69 (0.57) mm, the reference lesion length was 17.2 (9.2) mm, and 78% of lesions were type B2/C. A mean (SD) of 1.38 (0.58) stents (total mean [SD] length, 28.4 [13.1] mm) were implanted per lesion; 33% of lesions required multiple stents. Stents that were 2.25 mm and 4.0 mm in diameter were used in 18% and 17% of lesions, respectively. Compared with bare metal stents, paclitaxel-eluting stents reduced the 9-month rate of target lesion revascularization from 15.7% to 8.6% (P<.001) and target vessel revascularization from 17.3% to 12.1% (P = .02). Similar rates were observed for cardiac death or myocardial infarction (5.5% for bare metal stent group vs 5.7% for paclitaxel-eluting stent group) and stent thrombosis (0.7% in both groups). Angiographic restenosis was reduced from 33.9% to 18.9% in the entire study cohort (P<.001), including among patients receiving 2.25-mm stents (49.4% vs 31.2%; P = .01), 4.0-mm stents (14.4% vs 3.5%; P = .02), and multiple stents (57.8% vs 27.2%; P<.001). Compared with a bare metal stent, implantation of the paclitaxel-eluting stent in a patient population with complex lesions effectively reduces clinical and angiographic restenosis.
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              Coronary artery aneurysm: a review.

              Coronary artery aneurysm is defined as coronary dilatation which exceeds the diameter of normal adjacent segments or the diameter of the patient's largest coronary vessel by 1.5 times. This is an uncommon disease which has been diagnosed with increasing frequency since the advent of coronary angiography. The incidence varies from 1.5% to 5% with male dominance and a predilection for the right coronary artery. Atherosclerosis accounts for 50% of coronary aneurysms in adults. Reported complications include thrombosis and distal embolization, rupture and vasospasm. The natural history and prognosis remains obscure. Controversies persist regarding the use of surgical or medical management. The authors recommend surgery based on the severity of associated coronary stenosis rather than the mere presence of aneurysm. Medical therapy is indicated for the majority of patients and consists of antiplatelet and anticoagulant medication.

                Author and article information

                Interv Med Appl Sci
                Interv Med Appl Sci
                Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                14 September 2017
                December 2017
                : 9
                : 4
                : 208-211
                [1 ]Department of Cardiology, Hitit University Çorum Training and Research Hospital , Çorum, Turkey
                [2 ]Department of Cardiology, Hitit University Faculty of Medicine , Çorum, Turkey
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Macit Kalçık, MD; Hitit University Çorum Training and Research Hospital, Yeniyol, Çamlık Cad. No: 2, Çorum 19000, Turkey; Phone: +90 536 4921789; Fax: +90 364 2230300; E-mail: macitkalcik@ 123456yahoo.com
                © 2017 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 19, Pages: 4
                Funding sources: No financial support was received for this study.
                Case Report

                coronary artery,covered stent,myocardial infarction,percutaneous coronary intervention,pseudoaneurysm


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