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      Discordance of peripheral artery disease diagnosis using exercise transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurement and post-exercise ankle-brachial index

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          Abstract

          In patients with exertional limb symptoms and normal ankle-brachial index (ABI) at rest, exercise testing can be used to diagnose lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD). Post-exercise ABI decrease or Exercise transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurement (Exercise-TcPO2) can be used to diagnose LEAD. Objectives were (i) to assess the agreement between both methods (ii) to define the variables associated with the discordance, and (iii) to present results of healthy subjects. In this prospective cross-sectional study, patients with exertional limb symptoms and normal rest ABI were consecutively included. ABI was measured at rest and after standardized exercise protocol as well as Exercise-TcPO2. A kappa coefficient with a 95% confidence interval was used to assess the agreement between the two methods. Logistic regression analysis was performed to outline variables potentially responsible for discordance. Ninety-six patients were included. The agreement between the tests was weak with a k value of 0.23 [0.04–0.41]. Logistic regression analysis found that a medical history of lower extremity arterial stenting (odds ratio 5.85[1.68–20.44]) and age (odds ratio 1.06[1.01–1.11]) were the main cause of discordance. This study suggests that post-exercise ABI and Exercise-TcPO2 cannot be used interchangeably for the diagnosis of LEAD in patients with exertional symptoms and normal rest ABI.

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          Most cited references 28

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          The Cardiovascular Continuum extended: aging effects on the aorta and microvasculature.

          The 'Cardiovascular Continuum' was described by Dzau and colleagues in 2006 to explain the development over many years of coronary disease with its complications, then end-stage heart failure. The Continuum identified different points along the way where the process could be interrupted by drug therapies or interventions, then described the trials that have been undertaken over the last three decades to establish their value. The approach summarized the major steps in cardiology through modern times, but it had an emphasis on coronary atherosclerosis in prosperous nations, and did not account fully for the problems of aging, which occur in all societies. Aging of the aorta and elastic arteries causes arterial stiffening and leads to development of cardiac failure and microvascular disease in highly perfused organs such as the brain and kidneys. The 'Vascular Aging Continuum' which we introduce, dovetails with the late phases of the Cardiovascular Continuum and provides a more comprehensive explanation, especially for vascular diseases in nations with little atherosclerosis. It will become more common in the Western World where attention to risk factors and widespread use of statins are responsible for a decrease in atherosclerotic disease, prolongation of life, and dominance of macrovascular and microvascular arterial disease, as well as of cardiac failure.
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            Time course of changes in collateral blood flow and isolated vessel size and gene expression after femoral artery occlusion in rats.

            The objectives of this study were to assess the time course of enlargement and gene expression of a collateral vessel that enlarges following occlusion of the femoral artery and to relate these responses to the increases in collateral-dependent blood flow to the calf muscles in vivo. We employed exercise training to stimulate collateral vessel development. Rats were exercise trained or kept sedentary for various times of up to 25 days postbilateral occlusion (n=approximately 9/time point). Collateral blood flow to the calf muscles, determined with microspheres, increased modestly over the first few days to approximately 40 ml.min(-1).100 g(-1) in sedentary animals; the increase continued over time to approximately 80 ml.min(-1).100 g(-1) in the trained animals. Diameters of the isolated collateral vessels increased progressively over time, whereas an increased vessel compliance observed at low pressures was similar across time. These responses were greater in the trained animals. The time course of upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor, and particularly endothelial nitric oxide synthase and fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, mRNAs in the isolated collateral vessel implicates these factors as integral to the arteriogenic process. Collateral vessel enlargement and increased compliance at low pressures contribute to the enlarged circuit available for collateral blood flow. However, modulation of the functioning collateral vessel diameter, by smooth muscle tone, must occur to account for the observed increases in collateral blood flow measured in vivo.
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              Transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurements on the buttocks during exercise to detect proximal arterial ischemia: comparison with arteriography.

               B Enon,  F Thouveny,  B Vielle (2003)
              We sought to identify whether transcutaneous oxygen tension (tcPo2) measurements could be used to noninvasively detect lesions in the arterial network supplying blood flow to the hypogastric circulation. A study was undertaken in vascular patients with suspected (PC, n=43) and not with suspected (NPC, n=34) proximal ischemia. TcPo2 was measured on both buttocks and with a chest reference electrode. Arteriography on the right or left side was positive for stenoses (> or =75%) or occlusion of one or more of the following arteries: the aorta, the common iliac arteries, or the internal iliac arteries. The arteriography was compared with the resting tcPo2 values (REST) and with the minimal value (MIN) and maximal change from rest normalized to eventual chest changes (DROP) recorded during or after a treadmill test. REST, MIN, and DROP were, respectively, as follows in positive versus negative arteriograms (mean+/-SD; in mm Hg): 80.2+/-10.9 versus 78.6+/-11.5 (P>0.05), 55.2+/-20.0 versus 69.9+/-15.8 (P 0.05), 64.4+/-21.0 versus 75.1+/-14.6 (P<0.02), and -24.1+/-13.5 versus -8.7+/-4.8 (P<0.0001) in NPC. In PC and NPC respectively, with a cutoff point of -16 and -15 mm Hg, DROP showed, respectively, 83%/82% and 79%/86% sensitivity/specificity in the diagnosis of positive arteriograms. Proximal ischemia is a frequent finding in vascular patients. TcPo2 measurement on the buttocks during exercise is a sensitive and specific indicator for lesions in the arterial tree toward the hypogastric circulation. Potentially it could objectively assess the response to endovascular or surgical approaches to iliac lesions.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                maheguillaume@yahoo.fr
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                4 May 2020
                4 May 2020
                2020
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2175 0984, GRID grid.411154.4, Vascular Medicine Unit, CHU, ; Rennes, France
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2191 9284, GRID grid.410368.8, Univ Rennes 1; INSERM CIC 1414, ; Rennes, France
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2175 0984, GRID grid.411154.4, CHU Rennes, Inserm, CIC 1414 (Clinical Investigation Center), F-35000, ; Rennes, France
                [4 ]Vascular Medicine, Hospital, Redon, France
                [5 ]ISNI 0000000121105547, GRID grid.5607.4, Ecole Normale Supérieure, ; Bruz, France
                [6 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2191 9284, GRID grid.410368.8, Univ Rennes, M2S – EA 7470, F-35000, ; Rennes, France
                Article
                64276
                10.1038/s41598-020-64276-x
                7198590
                32366896
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                peripheral vascular disease, cardiovascular diseases

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