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      Regadenoson use in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the state of current knowledge

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          Abstract

          Stress testing is challenging in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Functional capacity is generally decreased in this patient population, limiting patients’ ability to achieve physiologic stress through exercise. Additionally, due to emphysematous changes, COPD patients tend to have poor acoustic windows that impair the quality and therefore diagnostic accuracy of stress echocardiography techniques. Pharmacologic stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) testing is also problematic, particularly due to the concern for adenosine-induced bronchoconstriction with conventional vasodilator stress agents. Regadenoson, a selective A 2A adenosine receptor agonist, has gained popularity due to its ease of administration and improved patient experience in the general population. The literature describing the experience with regadenoson in COPD patients, though limited, is rapidly growing and reassuring. This review summarizes the pharmacology and clinical application of this novel stress agent and presents the available data on the safety and tolerability of its use in COPD patients.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Adenosine versus regadenoson comparative evaluation in myocardial perfusion imaging: results of the ADVANCE phase 3 multicenter international trial.

          Earlier phase 1 and 2 studies have shown that regadenoson has desirable features as a stress agent for myocardial perfusion imaging. This multicenter, double-blinded phase 3 trial involved 784 patients at 54 sites. Each patient underwent 2 sets of gated single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging studies: an initial qualifying study with adenosine and a subsequent randomized study with either regadenoson (2/3 of patients) or adenosine. Regadenoson was administered as a rapid bolus (<10 seconds) of 400 mug. The primary endpoint was to demonstrate noninferiority by showing that the difference in the strength of agreement in detecting reversible defects, based on blinded reading, between sequential adenosine-regadenoson images and adenosine-adenosine images, lay above a prespecified noninferiority margin. Other prospectively defined safety and tolerability comparisons and supporting analyses were also performed. The average agreement rate based on the median of 3 independent blinded readers was 0.63 +/- 0.03 for regadenoson-adenosine and 0.64 +/- 0.04 for adenosine-adenosine-a 1% absolute difference with the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval lying above the prespecified noninferiority margin. Side-by-side interpretation of regadenoson and adenosine images provided comparable results for detecting reversible defects. The peak increase in heart rate was greater with regadenoson than adenosine, but the blood pressure nadir was similar. A summed symptom score of flushing, chest pain, and dyspnea was less with regadenoson than adenosine (P = .013). This phase 3 trial shows that regadenoson provides diagnostic information comparable to a standard adenosine infusion. There were no serious drug-related side effects, and regadenoson was better tolerated than adenosine.
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            Regadenoson: a new myocardial stress agent.

            Vasodilator stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) accounts for up to 50% of all stress MPI studies performed in the U.S. In 2008, the Food and Drug Administration approved regadenoson for stress testing in conjunction with MPI. Regadenoson, unlike adenosine, is a selective A(2A) agonist that is given as an intravenous bolus at a fixed dose, with less undesirable side effects including atrioventricular block and bronchospasm. Unlike adenosine, regadenoson could be used in patients with mild-to-moderate reactive airway disease. This review will summarize the pre-clinical and clinical data on regadenoson, as they specifically relate to its use as a vasodilator stress agent, currently the only approved selective A(2A) agonist.
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              Effects of age, gender, obesity, and diabetes on the efficacy and safety of the selective A2A agonist regadenoson versus adenosine in myocardial perfusion imaging integrated ADVANCE-MPI trial results.

              To compare the effects of age, gender, body mass index, and diabetes on the safety and efficacy of regadenoson stress myocardial perfusion imaging, and to assess the noninferiority of regadenoson to adenosine for the detection of reversible myocardial perfusion defects. Previous reports have shown that a fixed unit bolus of regadenoson is safe and noninferior to adenosine for the detection of reversible perfusion defects by radionuclide imaging. Using a database of 2,015 patients, we evaluated the effects of age, gender, body mass index, and diabetes on the safety and efficacy of regadenoson compared to adenosine. For detection of ischemia relative to adenosine, noninferiority was demonstrated for all patients (agreement rate difference 0%, 95% CI -6.2% to +6.8%). The average agreement rate between adenosine-adenosine and adenosine-regadenoson were 0.62 +/- 0.03 and 0.63 +/- 0.02. Detection of ischemia was also comparable in specific subgroups. Agreement was less for both agents in women versus men with moderate and large areas of ischemia. Compared to adenosine, regadenoson had a lower combined symptom score and less chest pain, flushing, and throat, neck, or jaw pain, but more headache and gastrointestinal discomfort. This was true in nearly all subgroups. Regadenoson patients reported feeling more comfortable (1.7 +/- .02 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.03, p < 0.001). Based on the overall tolerability score, women felt less comfortable than men with both stress agents. Image quality was rated good or excellent in 92% for both agents. Regadenoson can be safely administered as a fixed unit bolus and is as efficacious as adenosine in detecting ischemia regardless of age, gender, body mass index, and diabetes. Regadenoson is better tolerated overall and across various subgroups.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2014
                22 January 2014
                : 9
                : 129-137
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Adult Cardiology, John H Stroger Jr, Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, IL, USA
                [2 ]Division of Cardiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Rami Doukky, Rush University Medical Center, Section of Cardiology, 1653 W Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612, USA, Tel +1 312 942 4655, Fax +1 312 563 3213, Email rami_doukky@ 123456rush.edu
                Article
                copd-9-129
                10.2147/COPD.S56879
                3904829
                © 2014 Golzar and Doukky. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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