Many in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated a presence of IGF-I in the testis. Testicular production of IGF-I and its mRNA is stimulated largely by gonadotropins; FSH acts on Sertoli cells while LH acts on Leydig cells. A regulation by local factors is also demonstrated; the role of GH remains unclear. In the testis, IGF-I has various effects but we only focussed this review on Leydig cells. Specific receptors have been characterized on these cells. They are up-regulated by LH/hCG (at the transcriptional level) and down regulated by IGF-I. The effect of GH is depend on the experimental models used. In addition in this paper, we have shown in adult rats that the IGF-I level in the testicular interstitial fluid and the IGF-I receptors on Leydig cells are modified by fasting. Both in vivo and in vitro, IGF-I increased LH/hCG receptors and the steroïdogenic response to hCG by a mechanism which is poorly understood yet.