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      What are the Determinants of Misconception About HIV Transmission Among Ever-Married Women in Ethiopia?

      research-article

      1 , 2

      HIV/AIDS (Auckland, N.Z.)

      Dove

      misconception, HIV transmission, women, Ethiopia

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          Abstract

          Background

          Misconceptions are a major barrier to managing and stopping the spread of AIDS, and they cause a negative attitude towards people stricken by this serious disease that might result in grave harm to their physical and emotional spirit. This study aimed to identify determinants about misconceptions of HIV transmission among Ethiopian married women.

          Methods

          A cross-sectional study was conducted using the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) data set. The samples were selected using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. The data were analyzed with SPSS version 24. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of misconception about HIV transmission. An adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval and P-value <0.05 were considered to declare a statistically significant association.

          Results

          Of the samples of 8893 reproductive-age women, 34%, 18.5%, and 14.5% of women believed that mosquito bites, food sharing with an individual who is HIV seropositive, and witchcraft or supernatural means, respectively, were responsible for the acquisition of HIV/AIDS. Women residing in rural areas (AOR=1.52; 95% CI=1.13–2.0), did not attend education (AOR=2.36; 95% CI=1.3–4.23), attended primary education (AOR=1.8; 95% CI=1.03–3.21), unemployed (AOR=1.17; 95% CI=1.04–1.37), and had no media access (AOR= 1.34; 95% CI=1.14–1.58) were positively associated with the misconception that mosquito bites can transmit HIV.

          Conclusion

          Misconceptions are highly prevalent and increase the likelihood of the HIV epidemic in Ethiopia. This research revealed that women residing in a rural area, who did not have education, did not have access to media, who were catholic and Muslim religion followers, had not ever been tested for HIV, and unemployed women were strongly associated with a misconception about HIV transmission. Therefore, interventional health education programs should be taken into account to eradicate misconceptions about HIV.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Traditional beliefs about the cause of AIDS and AIDS-related stigma in South Africa.

          AIDS-related stigmas are pervasive in some segments of South African society and stigmas can impede efforts to promote voluntary counselling and testing and other HIV-AIDS prevention efforts. The current study examined associations among the belief that AIDS is caused by spirits and supernatural forces, AIDS-related knowledge and AIDS-related stigmas. A street intercept survey with 487 men and women living in a Black township in Cape Town, South Africa showed that 11% (n=54) believed that AIDS is caused by spirits and supernatural forces, 21% (n=105) were unsure if AIDS is caused by spirits and the supernatural, and 68% (n=355) did not believe that AIDS is caused by spirits and supernatural forces. Multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for participant age, gender, years of education and survey venue showed that people who believed HIV-AIDS is caused by spirits and the supernatural demonstrated significantly more misinformation about AIDS and were significantly more likely to endorse repulsion and social sanction stigmatizing beliefs against people living with HIV-AIDS. However, nearly all associations between beliefs that AIDS is caused by spirits and AIDS stigmas were non-significant when logistic regressions were repeated with AIDS-related knowledge included as a control variable. This finding suggests that relationships between traditional beliefs about the cause of HIV-AIDS and AIDS stigmas are mediated by AIDS-related knowledge. AIDS education efforts are urgently needed to reach people who hold traditional beliefs about AIDS to remedy AIDS stigmas.
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            Social Stigma and Knowledge of Tuberculosis and HIV among Patients with Both Diseases in Thailand

            Introduction Disease-related stigma and knowledge are believed to be associated with patients' willingness to seek treatment and adherence to treatment. HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) presents unique challenges, because TB and HIV are both medically complex and stigmatizing diseases. In Thailand, we assessed knowledge and beliefs about these diseases among HIV-infected TB patients. Methods We prospectively interviewed and examined HIV-infected TB patients from three provinces and one national referral hospital in Thailand from 2005–2006. At the beginning of TB treatment, we asked patients standardized questions about TB stigma, TB knowledge, and HIV knowledge. Responses were grouped into scores; scores equal to or greater than the median score of study population were considered high. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with scores. Results Of 769 patients enrolled, 500 (65%) reported high TB stigma, 177 (23%) low TB knowledge, and 379 (49%) low HIV knowledge. Patients reporting high TB stigma were more likely to have taken antibiotics before TB treatment, to have first visited a traditional healer or private provider, to not know that monogamy can reduce the risk of acquiring HIV infection, and to have been hospitalized at enrollment. Patients with low TB knowledge were more likely to have severe TB disease, to be hospitalized at enrollment, to be treated at the national infectious diseases referral hospital, and to have low HIV knowledge. Patients with low HIV knowledge were more likely to know a TB patient and to have low TB knowledge. Discussion We found that stigma and low disease-specific knowledge were common among HIV-infected TB patients and associated with similar factors. Further research is needed to determine whether reducing stigma and increasing TB and HIV knowledge among the general community and patients reduces diagnostic delay and improves patient outcomes.
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              Myths and misconceptions about HIV transmission in Ghana: what are the drivers?

              Biomedical and social cognitive models driving HIV preventive activities in sub-Saharan Africa are mostly premised on factual and accurate knowledge of the disease. While knowledge about HIV exists in most parts of Africa, there is widespread belief in myths that often contradict and undermine preventive efforts. Using the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey and applying logit models, we examined what influences belief in myths and misconceptions surrounding HIV transmission among Ghanaian men and women. Results indicate that respondents with high knowledge of how HIV may be transmitted had lower odds of endorsing myths about the disease. Compared to the less educated and poorer Ghanaians, educated and wealthier Ghanaians were less likely to endorse myths about HIV. Also, compared to the Akan people, respondents identifying with other ethnic groups were significantly less likely to endorse myths. The findings suggest that policy makers provide accurate information about how the disease is spread to counter myths surrounding HIV transmission.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HIV AIDS (Auckl)
                HIV AIDS (Auckl)
                hiv
                hiv
                HIV/AIDS (Auckland, N.Z.)
                Dove
                1179-1373
                18 September 2020
                2020
                : 12
                : 441-448
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Midwifery, Woldia University , Woldia, Ethiopia
                [2 ]Department of Public Health, Woldia University , Woldia, Ethiopia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Abdu Seid Email abdus3536@gmail.com
                Article
                274650
                10.2147/HIV.S274650
                7509327
                © 2020 Seid and Ahmed.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, References: 23, Pages: 8
                Funding
                There is no funding to report.
                Categories
                Original Research

                Infectious disease & Microbiology

                misconception, hiv transmission, women, ethiopia

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