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Modelling aggregate exposure to pesticides from dietary and crop spray sources in UK residents

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      Human exposure to pesticide mixtures can occur from the diet and other sources. Realistic exposure and risk assessments should include multiple sources and compounds and include the relative hazards of the different compounds. The EU-funded Euromix project is developing new web-based tools to facilitate these calculations. A case study is presented that exemplifies their use for a population of UK residents, including exposure from crop-spraying. A UK pesticide usage survey provided information on real pesticide combinations applied to crops of wheat, potatoes, sugar beet and dessert apples. This information was combined with outputs from two alternative simulation models of spray drift to estimate dermal, oral and inhalation exposures of residents. These non-dietary exposures were combined with dietary exposure estimates using the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment software to produce a distribution of aggregated and cumulative exposures. Compounds are weighted by relative potency to generate a measure of overall risk. Uncertainty quantification was also included in the distribution of exposures. These tools are flexible to allow diverse sources of exposure and can provide important information to decision-makers and help to prioritise testing of pesticide mixtures. Including non-dietary sources changed the prioritisation of pesticide mixtures, when compared to dietary exposure alone.

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      The online version of this article (10.1007/s11356-019-04440-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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            Author and article information

            [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 5903 2525, GRID grid.470556.5, Fera Science Ltd, ; Sand Hutton, York, YO41 1LZ UK
            [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0791 5666, GRID grid.4818.5, Wageningen University & Research, Biometris, ; Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
            Author notes

            Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

            ORCID:, +44 1904 462175 ,
            Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
            Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
            Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
            Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
            8 February 2019
            8 February 2019
            : 26
            : 10
            : 9892-9907
            30734911 6469822 4440 10.1007/s11356-019-04440-7
            © The Author(s) 2019

            OpenAccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

            Funded by: FundRef, Horizon 2020 Framework Programme;
            Award ID: 633172, H2020-SFS-2014-2
            Research Article
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            © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019


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