Objective To understand the prevalence of overweight and obesity, dietary habits and main food intake frequency among primary school students in Shenyang, so as to provide a reference for exploring the effect of diet-related factors on the development of overweight and obesity in children.
Methods A total of 2 041 students from two primary schools in a certain district of Shenyang were selected by convenience sampling in May 2017, with height and weight measured, meanwhile the questionnaire survey regarding dietary habits and the frequency of main food intake were administered.
Results The rates of overweight and obesity were 18.4% and 22.1% respectively, and the rate of overweight and obesity in boys (21.0%, 27.8%) were significantly higher than that in girls (15.8%, 16.2%) (χ 2 = 22.45, 53.40, P<0.01). The results of univariate analysis showed that frequency of eating breakfast, eating speed, appetite, picky eaters or not, and the frequency of fruit, seafood and canned food intake were associated with overweight and obesity in primary school students (χ 2 = 7.67, 97.92, 229.70, 95.88, 6.40, 6.58, 7.96, P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that slow eating speed ( OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.29–0.69) and normal eating speed ( OR = 0.47, 95% CI =0.32–0.69) were associated with lower rates of overweight and obesity; good appetite ( OR = 43.73, 95% CI = 5.88–325.36) was associated with higher rates of overweight and obesity in primary school students ( P<0.01).
Conclusion The detection rate of overweight and obesity is relatively high among primary school students in Shenyang, and the rate of obesity is already higher than that of overweight; The frequency of common food intake has little impact on the development of overweight and obesity in primary school students, but fast eating speed and good appetite are the risks of overweight and obesity among them.
【摘要】 目的 了解沈阳市小学生超重肥胖发生情况及饮食习惯和主要食物摄人频率, 为探寻饮食相关因素对儿童超重 肥胖的影响提供参考依据。 方法 2017 年 5 月采用方便抽样方法, 选取沈阳市某区 2 所小学 2 041 名在校生作为调查对 象, 对其进行身高和体重测量, 同时发放饮食习惯及常见食物摄人频率的调查问卷。 结果 学生超重和肥胖检出率分别为 18.4% 和 22.1%, 男生超重\肥胖率 (21.0%, 27.8%) 均高于女生 (15.8%, 16.2%) (χ 2 值分别为 22.45,53.40, P 值均<0.01)。单因素分析显示, 是否经常吃早餐、吃饭速度、食欲、是否挑食, 以及水果、海产品及罐头食品摄人频率与小学生超重肥胖有 关联 (χ 2 值分别为 7.67,97.92,229.70,95.88,6.40,6.58,7.96, P 值均<0.05)。多因素 Logistic 回归分析显示, 吃饭速度慢 ( OR = 0.46,95% CI =0.29~0.69) 和吃饭速度正常 ( OR = 0.47,95% CI =0.32~0.69) 与小学生超重肥胖呈负相关, 食欲好 ( OR =43.73,95% CI = 5.88 ~ 325.36) 与小学生超重肥胖呈正相关 ( P 值均<0.01)。 结论 沈阳市小学生超重肥胖检出率较高, 且 肥胖检出率大于超重率;常见食物摄人情况对小学生超重肥胖发生发展的影响较少, 但吃饭速度快和食欲好与小学生超重 肥胖的发生呈正相关。