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      Individualized Techniques of Implant Coating with an Antibiotic-Loaded, Hydroxyapatite/Calcium Sulphate Bone Graft Substitute

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          The treatment of fracture- or non-union-related infections has persistently been a major challenge for both patients and treating surgeons. With rising aging of patients and increasing comorbidities, combined with the heterogeneity of germs and any number of multi-resistance against standard antibiotics, a successful treatment is increasingly difficult. One potential solution could be a custom-made individualized antibacterial coating of standard implants with a biphasic degradable biocarrier (Cerament G/V, supplied by Bonesupport AB, Lund, Sweden) that releases high doses of antibiotics around the bone-implant-interface. Here, we describe our technique of coating intramedullary nails, plates and press-fit shoulder endoprostheses which may prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. So far, there is very limited experience in individual coating of implants in hip or knee endoprostheses to prevent reoccurrence of surgical-site infection. Currently, no reports are available for coating of stems of shoulder prosthesis and nails or plates for fracture fixation.


          Here, we show our first experiences with a new individualized surgical technique of coating these implants with a resorbable antibiotic-loaded hydroxyapatite/calcium sulphate biocomposite to prevent biofilm formation and thereby recurrence of bone or joint infection. We describe three cases for coating of plates and nails for fracture fixation and coating of stems of a shoulder prosthesis.


          No adverse events of the resorbable bone graft substitute were observed. In all of the cases, no recurrence of the infection was observed and osseointegration was achieved. After implant coating of the shoulder prosthesis, no radiological signs of loosening were detected.


          We present a new surgical approach of a surface coating of plates, intramedullary nails or prostheses. The osteoconductive- and anti-inflammatory effect of the gentamicin- or vancomycin-loaded hydroxyapatite/calcium sulphate bone graft substitutes shows promising results.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Single-stage treatment of chronic osteomyelitis with a new absorbable, gentamicin-loaded, calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite biocomposite: a prospective series of 100 cases.

          Chronic osteomyelitis may recur if dead space management, after excision of infected bone, is inadequate. This study describes the results of a strategy for the management of deep bone infection and evaluates a new antibiotic-loaded biocomposite in the eradication of infection from bone defects.
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            Infections from biomaterials and implants: a race for the surface.

            Microorganisms in nature and disease are dependent on substratum attachment for optimal growth and development. Similarly, implanted biomaterials tend to potentiate bacteria on their surfaces so that normally friendly special or opportunistic organisms become virulent pathogens. Virulence is also enhanced because both bacteria and biomaterials interfere with host defense mechanisms. Infections centered on biomaterials are most difficult to eliminate and usually require removal of the device. The consequences of device failure are catastrophic and costly. It is the specific nature of the biomaterial surface, which is indirectly a reflection of bulk features, that causes and directs the changes in bacterial behavior which result in virulence. Features of organisms and materials and interactions responsible for these phenomena are reviewed.
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              Rodent animal models of delayed bone healing and non-union formation: a comprehensive review.

              Despite the growing knowledge on the mechanisms of fracture healing, delayed healing and non-union formation remain a major clinical challenge. Animal models are needed to study the complex process of normal and impaired fracture healing and to develop new therapeutic strategies. Whereas in the past mainly large animals have been used to study normal and impaired fracture healing, nowadays rodent models are of increasing interest. New osteosynthesis techniques for rat and mice have been developed during the last years, which allowed for the first time stable osteosynthesis in these animals comparable to the standards in large animals and humans. Based on these new implants, different models in rat and mice have been established to study delayed healing and non-union formation. Although in humans the terms delayed union and non-union are well defined, in rodents definitions are lacking. However, especially in scientific studies clear definitions are necessary to develop a uniform scientific language and allow comparison of the results between different studies. In this consensus report, we define the basic terms "union", "delayed healing" and "non-union" in rodent animal models. Based on a review of the literature and our own experience, we further provide an overview on available models of delayed healing and non-union formation in rats and mice. We further summarise the value of different approaches to study normal and delayed fracture healing as well as non-union formation, and discuss different methods of data evaluation.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                29 July 2020
                : 16
                : 689-694
                [1 ]Department of Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery, BG Trauma Center Ludwigshafen at Heidelberg University Hospital , Ludwigshafen am Rhein 67071, Germany
                [2 ]Clinic for Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Center for Orthopedics, Trauma Surgery and Spinal Cord Injury, Heidelberg University Hospital , Heidelberg 69118, Germany
                [3 ]Arcus Kliniken Pforzheim , Pforzheim 75179, Germany
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Thorsten GuehringArcus Kliniken Pforzheim , Rastatter-Strasse 17-19, Pforzheim75179, Germany Email Guehring@uni-heidelberg.de
                © 2020 Freischmidt et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 20, Pages: 6
                There has been no financial support for this work that could have influenced its outcome.
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