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      Mucosal-associated invariant T cells and oral microbiome in persistent apical periodontitis

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          Abstract

          Opportunistic bacteria in apical periodontitis (AP) may pose a risk for systemic dissemination. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells with a broad and potent antimicrobial activity important for gut mucosal integrity. It was recently shown that MAIT cells are present in the oral mucosal tissue, but the involvement of MAIT cells in AP is unknown. Here, comparison of surgically resected AP and gingival tissues demonstrated that AP tissues express significantly higher levels of Vα7.2-Jα33, Vα7.2-Jα20, Vα7.2-Jα12, Cα and tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17A transcripts, resembling a MAIT cell signature. Moreover, in AP tissues the MR1-restricted MAIT cells positive for MR1–5-OP-RU tetramer staining appeared to be of similar levels as in peripheral blood but consisted mainly of CD4 + subset. Unlike gingival tissues, the AP microbiome was quantitatively impacted by factors like fistula and high patient age and had a prominent riboflavin-expressing bacterial feature. When merged in an integrated view, the examined immune and microbiome data in the sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis could identify bacterial relative abundances that negatively correlated with Vα7.2-Jα33, Cα, and IL-17A transcript expressions in AP, implying that MAIT cells could play a role in the local defence at the oral tissue barrier. In conclusion, we describe the presence of MAIT cells at the oral site where translocation of oral microbiota could take place. These findings have implications for understanding the immune sensing of polymicrobial-related oral diseases.

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          Author and article information

          Contributors
          Margaret.Chen@ki.se
          Journal
          Int J Oral Sci
          Int J Oral Sci
          International Journal of Oral Science
          Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
          1674-2818
          2049-3169
          9 May 2019
          9 May 2019
          June 2019
          : 11
          : 2
          Affiliations
          [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0626, GRID grid.4714.6, Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, ; Huddinge, Sweden
          [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0626, GRID grid.4714.6, Department of Microbiology, , Tumor and Cell Biology and Science for Life Laboratory, Karolinska Institutet, ; Stockholm, Sweden
          [3 ]GRID grid.452834.c, Clinical Genomics Facility, , Science for Life Laboratory, ; Solna, Sweden
          [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0626, GRID grid.4714.6, Department of Medicine, , Karolinska Institutet, ; Huddinge, Sweden
          [5 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2193 1910, GRID grid.418651.f, Clinic of Endodontics and Periodontology, , Eastman Institute Stockholm, ; Stockholm, Sweden
          Article
          49
          10.1038/s41368-019-0049-y
          6506549
          © The Author(s) 2019

          Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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          © The Author(s) 2019

          Dentistry

          cell signalling, microbiome

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