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      Emerging Trends in the West Nile Virus Epidemiology in Croatia in the 'One Health' Context, 2011-2020.

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          West Nile virus (WNV) is one of the most widely distributed (re-)emerging arboviruses. In Croatia, acute WNV infections as well as seropositivity were detected in humans, horses, birds and poultry. Although serologic evidence of WNV human infections dates back to the 1970s, no clinical cases were reported until 2012. WNV outbreaks, as well as sporadic infections, were continuously recorded in continental Croatian counties from 2012 to 2018. In addition, acute asymptomatic infections (IgM antibodies) in horses have been regularly notified in continental regions since 2012, while seropositive horses (seroprevalence rates 3.7-21.4%) were detected in both continental and coastal regions. Moreover, WNV seropositivity in poultry (1.8-22.9%) was reported from 2013 to 2020. During the largest WNV outbreak in 2018, WNV RNA was detected for the first time in two dead goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) from the same aviary in North-West Croatia, while WNV antibodies were found in one buzzard (Butteo butteo) from the same region. In addition, WNV RNA was detected in a dead blackbird (Turdus merula) at the Croatian littoral. The phylogenetic analysis of 11 strains detected in urine samples of patients with neuroinvasive disease and 1 strain detected in a goshawk showed circulation of WNV lineage 2. Thus far, WNV has not been detected in mosquitoes in Croatia.

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          Author and article information

          Trop Med Infect Dis
          Tropical medicine and infectious disease
          MDPI AG
          Jul 24 2021
          : 6
          : 3
          [1 ] Department of Virology, Croatian Institute of Public Health, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
          [2 ] Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
          [3 ] Poultry Center, Croatian Veterinary Institute, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
          [4 ] Department of Epidemiology, Andrija Stampar Teaching Institute of Public Health, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
          [5 ] Clinical Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Merkur University Hospital, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
          [6 ] Department of Epidemiology, Croatian Institute of Public Health, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
          [7 ] Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases with Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
          [8 ] Department for Intensive Care Medicine and Neuroinfectology, University Hospital for Infectious Diseases "Dr Fran Mihaljevic", 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
          [9 ] Public Institution Nature Park Kopacki Rit, 31327 Kopacevo, Croatia.

          epidemiology,Croatia,West Nile virus,‘One Health’
          epidemiology, Croatia, West Nile virus, ‘One Health’


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