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      Reference datasets of tufA and UPA markers to identify algae in metabarcoding surveys

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      Data in Brief

      Elsevier

      Metabarcoding, Ostreobium, tufA, RDP classifier, UPA, Reference sequences

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          Abstract

          The data presented here are related to the research article “Multi-marker metabarcoding of coral skeletons reveals a rich microbiome and diverse evolutionary origins of endolithic algae” (Marcelino and Verbruggen, 2016) [1]. Here we provide reference datasets of the elongation factor Tu ( tufA) and the Universal Plastid Amplicon (UPA) markers in a format that is ready-to-use in the QIIME pipeline (Caporaso et al., 2010) [2]. In addition to sequences previously available in GenBank, we included newly discovered endolithic algae lineages using both amplicon sequencing (Marcelino and Verbruggen, 2016) [1] and chloroplast genome data (Marcelino et al., 2016; Verbruggen et al., in press) [3], [4]. We also provide a script to convert GenBank flatfiles into reference datasets that can be used with other markers. The tufA and UPA reference datasets are made publicly available here to facilitate biodiversity assessments of microalgal communities.

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          Multi-marker metabarcoding of coral skeletons reveals a rich microbiome and diverse evolutionary origins of endolithic algae

          Bacteria, fungi and green algae are common inhabitants of coral skeletons. Their diversity is poorly characterized because they are difficult to identify with microscopy or environmental sequencing, as common metabarcoding markers have low phylogenetic resolution and miss a large portion of the biodiversity. We used a cost-effective protocol and a combination of markers (tufA, 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA and 23S rDNA) to characterize the microbiome of 132 coral skeleton samples. We identified a wide range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, many never reported in corals before. We additionally investigated the phylogenetic diversity of the green algae—the most abundant eukaryotic member of this community, for which previous literature recognizes only a handful of endolithic species. We found more than 120 taxonomic units (near species level), including six family-level lineages mostly new to science. The results suggest that the existence of lineages with an endolithic lifestyle predates the existence of modern scleractinian corals by ca. 250my, and that this particular niche was independently invaded by over 20 lineages in green algae evolution. These results highlight the potential of the multi-marker approach to assist in species discovery and, when combined with a phylogenetic framework, clarify the evolutionary origins of host-microbiota associations.
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            Evolutionary Dynamics of Chloroplast Genomes in Low Light: A Case Study of the Endolithic Green Alga Ostreobium quekettii

            Abstract Some photosynthetic organisms live in extremely low light environments. Light limitation is associated with selective forces as well as reduced exposure to mutagens, and over evolutionary timescales it can leave a footprint on species’ genomes. Here, we present the chloroplast genomes of four green algae (Bryopsidales, Ulvophyceae), including the endolithic (limestone-boring) alga Ostreobium quekettii, which is a low light specialist. We use phylogenetic models and comparative genomic tools to investigate whether the chloroplast genome of Ostreobium corresponds to our expectations of how low light would affect genome evolution. Ostreobium has the smallest and most gene-dense chloroplast genome among Ulvophyceae reported to date, matching our expectation that light limitation would impose resource constraints reflected in the chloroplast genome architecture. Rates of molecular evolution are significantly slower along the phylogenetic branch leading to Ostreobium, in agreement with the expected effects of low light and energy levels on molecular evolution. We expected the ability of Ostreobium to perform photosynthesis in very low light to be associated with positive selection in genes related to the photosynthetic machinery, but instead, we observed that these genes may be under stronger purifying selection. Besides shedding light on the genome dynamics associated with a low light lifestyle, this study helps to resolve the role of environmental factors in shaping the diversity of genome architectures observed in nature.
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              Phylogenetic position of the coral symbiont Ostreobium (Ulvophyceae) inferred from chloroplast genome data.

              The green algal genus Ostreobium is an important symbiont of corals, playing roles in reef decalcification and providing photosynthates to the coral during bleaching events. A chloroplast genome of a cultured strain of Ostreobium was available, but low taxon sampling and Ostreobium's early-branching nature left doubt about its phylogenetic position. Here, we generate and describe chloroplast genomes from four Ostreobium strains as well as Avrainvillea mazei and Neomeris sp., strategically sampled early-branching lineages in the Bryopsidales and Dasycladales respectively. At 80,584 bp, the chloroplast genome of Ostreobium sp. HV05042 is the most compact yet found in the Ulvophyceae. The Avrainvillea chloroplast genome is ~94 kbp and contains introns in infA and cysT that have nearly complete sequence identity except for an open reading frame (ORF) in infA that is not present in cysT. In line with other bryopsidalean species, it also contains regions with possibly bacteria-derived ORFs. The Neomeris data did not assemble into a canonical circular chloroplast genome but a large number of contigs containing fragments of chloroplast genes and showing evidence of long introns and intergenic regions, and the Neomeris chloroplast genome size was estimated to exceed 1.87 Mb. Chloroplast phylogenomics and 18S nrDNA data showed strong support for the Ostreobium lineage being sister to the remaining Bryopsidales. There were differences in branch support when outgroups were varied, but the overall support for the placement of Ostreobium was strong. These results permitted us to validate two suborders and introduce a third, the Ostreobineae.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Data Brief
                Data Brief
                Data in Brief
                Elsevier
                2352-3409
                13 February 2017
                April 2017
                13 February 2017
                : 11
                : 273-276
                Affiliations
                School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. vrmarcelino@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                S2352-3409(17)30032-X
                10.1016/j.dib.2017.02.013
                5320050
                © 2017 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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