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      Is consumer behaviour towards footwear predisposing for lower extremity injuries in runners and walkers? A prospective study

      , ,

      Journal of Foot and Ankle Research

      BioMed Central

      Runner, Walker, Risk factor, Injury, Footwear

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          Abstract

          Background

          Runners and walkers often suffer from lower extremity injuries. Little is known about the relationship between their consumer behaviour towards footwear and the development of those injuries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if consumer behaviour towards footwear is a risk factor for lower extremity injuries.

          Methods

          A prospective cohort study was set-up in leisure-time walkers and runners. Potential risk factors in consumer behaviour were obtained by means of a baseline questionnaire related to the acquisition of current walking or running shoes. Information on injuries sustained during a 24 week period after the baseline questionnaire was obtained in 104 runners and 104 walkers using a 2-weekly questionnaire. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for lower extremity injuries in the consumer behaviour.

          Results

          Forty- nine (24%) subjects suffered a self-reported lower extremity injury. 35 injuries occurred in runners and 14 among walkers.

          Undergoing a gait analysis before buying shoes was associated with an increased occurrence of lower extremity injuries (odds ratio (OR) 4.76). A protective factor was caring a lot about the right fitting of the shoes (OR 0.11).

          Conclusion

          Runners and walkers should pay attention to the correct size when buying footwear to diminish the risk of lower extremity injury. Buying footwear after a gait analysis increased the risk of a lower extremity injury in runners and walkers, however, this might be associated with the increased risk that was already present because of previous injury.

          Trial registration

          This trial was not registered since this was an observational study and no intervention took place.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (10.1186/s13047-019-0354-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 26

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          Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association.

          In 1995 the American College of Sports Medicine and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published national guidelines on Physical Activity and Public Health. The Committee on Exercise and Cardiac Rehabilitation of the American Heart Association endorsed and supported these recommendations. The purpose of the present report is to update and clarify the 1995 recommendations on the types and amounts of physical activity needed by healthy adults to improve and maintain health. Development of this document was by an expert panel of scientists, including physicians, epidemiologists, exercise scientists, and public health specialists. This panel reviewed advances in pertinent physiologic, epidemiologic, and clinical scientific data, including primary research articles and reviews published since the original recommendation was issued in 1995. Issues considered by the panel included new scientific evidence relating physical activity to health, physical activity recommendations by various organizations in the interim, and communications issues. Key points related to updating the physical activity recommendation were outlined and writing groups were formed. A draft manuscript was prepared and circulated for review to the expert panel as well as to outside experts. Comments were integrated into the final recommendation. To promote and maintain health, all healthy adults aged 18 to 65 yr need moderate-intensity aerobic (endurance) physical activity for a minimum of 30 min on five days each week or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity for a minimum of 20 min on three days each week. [I (A)] Combinations of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity can be performed to meet this recommendation. [IIa (B)] For example, a person can meet the recommendation by walking briskly for 30 min twice during the week and then jogging for 20 min on two other days. Moderate-intensity aerobic activity, which is generally equivalent to a brisk walk and noticeably accelerates the heart rate, can be accumulated toward the 30-min minimum by performing bouts each lasting 10 or more minutes. [I (B)] Vigorous-intensity activity is exemplified by jogging, and causes rapid breathing and a substantial increase in heart rate. In addition, every adult should perform activities that maintain or increase muscular strength and endurance a minimum of two days each week. [IIa (A)] Because of the dose-response relation between physical activity and health, persons who wish to further improve their personal fitness, reduce their risk for chronic diseases and disabilities or prevent unhealthy weight gain may benefit by exceeding the minimum recommended amounts of physical activity. [I (A)].
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            Incidence and determinants of lower extremity running injuries in long distance runners: a systematic review.

            The purpose of this study was to present a systematic overview of published reports on the incidence and associated potential risk factors of lower extremity running injuries in long distance runners. An electronic database search was conducted using the PubMed-Medline database. Two observers independently assessed the quality of the studies and a best evidence synthesis was used to summarise the results. The incidence of lower extremity running injuries ranged from 19.4% to 79.3%. The predominant site of these injuries was the knee. There was strong evidence that a long training distance per week in male runners and a history of previous injuries were risk factors for injuries, and that an increase in training distance per week was a protective factor for knee injuries.
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              What are the Main Running-Related Musculoskeletal Injuries?

              Background Musculoskeletal injuries occur frequently in runners and despite many studies about running injuries conducted over the past decades it is not clear in the literature what are the main running-related musculoskeletal injuries (RRMIs). Objective The aim of this study is to systematically review studies on the incidence and prevalence of the main specific RRMIs. Methods An electronic database search was conducted using EMBASE (1947 to October 2011), MEDLINE (1966 to October 2011), SPORTDiscus™ (1975 to October 2011), the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (LILACS) [1982 to October 2011] and the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) [1998 to October 2011] with no limits of date or language of publication. Articles that described the incidence or prevalence rates of RRMIs were considered eligible. Studies that reported only the type of injury, anatomical region or incomplete data that precluded interpretation of the incidence or prevalence rates of RRMIs were excluded. We extracted data regarding bibliometric characteristics, study design, description of the population of runners, RRMI definition, how the data of RRMIs were collected and the name of each RRMI with their rates of incidence or prevalence. Separate analysis for ultra-marathoners was performed. Among 2924 potentially eligible titles, eight studies (pooled n = 3500 runners) were considered eligible for the review. In general, the articles had moderate risk of bias and only one fulfilled less than half of the quality criteria established. Results A total of 28 RRMIs were found and the main general RRMIs were medial tibial stress syndrome (incidence ranging from 13.6% to 20.0%; prevalence of 9.5%), Achilles tendinopathy (incidence ranging from 9.1% to 10.9%; prevalence ranging from 6.2% to 9.5%) and plantar fasciitis (incidence ranging from 4.5% to 10.0%; prevalence ranging from 5.2% to 17.5%). The main ultra-marathon RRMIs were Achilles tendinopathy (prevalence ranging from 2.0% to 18.5%) and patellofemoral syndrome (prevalence ranging from 7.4% to 15.6%). Conclusion This systematic review provides evidence that medial tibia stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy and plantar fasciitis were the main general RRMIs, while Achilles tendinopathy and patellofemoral syndrome were the most common RRMIs for runners who participated in ultra-marathon races.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +32 9 332 68 87 , Tine.willems@ugent.be
                Roel.DeRidder@ugent.be
                Philip.Roosen@ugent.be
                Journal
                J Foot Ankle Res
                J Foot Ankle Res
                Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
                BioMed Central (London )
                1757-1146
                17 August 2019
                17 August 2019
                2019
                : 12
                Affiliations
                Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent University Hospital, Corneel Heymanslaan 10, 3B3, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
                Article
                354
                10.1186/s13047-019-0354-x
                6697916
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Orthopedics

                footwear, injury, risk factor, walker, runner

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