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      The Use of Endotoxin Adsorption in Extracorporeal Blood Purification Techniques. A Case Report

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          Abstract

          Sepsis and septic shock are major healthcare problems, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC), which standardised the approach to sepsis, was recently updated. Strategies to decrease the systemic inflammatory response have been proposed to modulate organ dysfunctions. Endotoxin, derived from the membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is considered a major factor in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Endotoxin adsorption, if effective, has the potential to reduce the biological cascade of Gram-negative sepsis.

          We present a case of a 64-year-old man with severe Gram-negative sepsis, following purulent peritonitis secondary to rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma. To reduce the amplitude of the general effects of endotoxins we used a novel device, the Alteco® LPS Adsorber (Alteco Medical AB, Lund, Sweden), for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) adsorption.

          The efficacy markers were: the overall haemodynamic profile, translated into decreased vasopressor requirements, the normalisation of the cardiac index, the systemic vascular resistance index combined with the lactate level and the reduction in procalcitonin (PCT) levels. A decrease in the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score at twenty-four hours was demonstrated.

          The clinical course following treatment was favourable for the days immediately following the treatment.This was attributed to the removal of endotoxin from the systemic circulation. The patient died one week after the endotoxin removal session, developing an ischemic bowel perforation with subsequent multiple organ failures.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Early use of polymyxin B hemoperfusion in patients with septic shock due to peritonitis: a multicenter randomized control trial

          Purpose To test whether the polymyxin B hemoperfusion (PMX HP) fiber column reduces mortality and organ failure in peritonitis-induced septic shock (SS) from abdominal infections. Method Prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial in 18 French intensive care units from October 2010 to March 2013, enrolling 243 patients with SS within 12 h after emergency surgery for peritonitis related to organ perforation. The PMX HP group received conventional therapy plus two sessions of PMX HP. Primary outcome was mortality on day 28; secondary outcomes were mortality on day 90 and a reduction in the severity of organ failures based on Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores. Results Primary outcome: day 28 mortality in the PMX HP group (n = 119) was 27.7 versus 19.5 % in the conventional group (n = 113), p = 0.14 (OR 1.5872, 95 % CI 0.8583–2.935). Secondary endpoints: mortality rate at day 90 was 33.6 % in PMX-HP versus 24 % in conventional groups, p = 0.10 (OR 1.6128, 95 % CI 0.9067–2.8685); reduction in SOFA score from day 0 to day 7 was −5 (−11 to 6) in PMX-HP versus −5 (−11 to 9), p = 0.78. Comparable results were observed in the predefined subgroups (presence of comorbidity; adequacy of surgery, <2 sessions of hemoperfusion) and for SOFA reduction from day 0 to day 3. Conclusion This multicenter randomized controlled study demonstrated a non-significant increase in mortality and no improvement in organ failure with PMX HP treatment compared to conventional treatment of peritonitis-induced SS. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00134-015-3751-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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            Effectiveness of polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column in sepsis: a systematic review

            Introduction Severe sepsis and septic shock are common problems in the intensive care unit and carry a high mortality. Endotoxin, one of the principal components on the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, is considered important to their pathogenesis. Polymyxin B bound and immobilized to polystyrene fibers (PMX-F) is a medical device that aims to remove circulating endotoxin by adsorption, theoretically preventing the progression of the biological cascade of sepsis. We performed a systematic review to describe the effect in septic patients of direct hemoperfusion with PMX-F on outcomes of blood pressure, use of vasoactive drugs, oxygenation, and mortality reported in published studies. Methods We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Collaboration Database, and bibliographies of retrieved articles and consulted with experts to identify relevant studies. Prospective and retrospective observational studies, pre- and post-intervention design, and randomized controlled trials were included. Three authors reviewed all citations. We identified a total of 28 publications – 9 randomized controlled trials, 7 non-randomized parallel studies, and 12 pre-post design studies – that reported at least one of the specified outcome measures (pooled sample size, 1,425 patients: 978 PMX-F and 447 conventional medical therapy). Results Overall, mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased by 19 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI], 15 to 22 mm Hg; p < 0.001), representing a 26% mean increase in MAP (range, 14% to 42%), whereas dopamine/dobutamine dose decreased by 1.8 μg/kg per minute (95% CI, 0.4 to 3.3 μg/kg per minute; p = 0.01) after PMX-F. There was significant intertrial heterogeneity for these outcomes (p < 0.001), which became non-significant when analysis was stratified for baseline MAP. The mean arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) ratio increased by 32 units (95% CI, 23 to 41 units; p < 0.001). PMX-F therapy was associated with significantly lower mortality risk (risk ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.65). The trials assessed had suboptimal method quality. Conclusion Based on this critical review of the published literature, direct hemoperfusion with PMX-F appears to have favorable effects on MAP, dopamine use, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and mortality. However, publication bias and lack of blinding need to be considered. These findings support the need for further rigorous study of this therapy.
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              Blood purification and mortality in sepsis: a meta-analysis of randomized trials.

              Although blood purification improves outcomes in animal studies of sepsis, results of clinical trials have been mixed. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials to determine the association between various blood purification techniques and all-cause mortality in humans with sepsis. We searched for relevant studies in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library database from January 1966 to May 2012. Inclusion required a diagnosis of sepsis and comparison of blood purification techniques including hemofiltration, hemoperfusion, plasma exchange, or hemodialysis with no blood purification (control group). Two authors independently selected studies and extracted data. Summary statistics, risk ratios, and CIs were calculated using random-effects modeling. Study quality was assessed using Jadad score, and publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger's statistic. Overall, blood purification decreased mortality compared with no blood purification (35.7% vs 50.1%; risk ratio, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.56-0.84]; p<0.001; 16 trials, n=827). However, these results were driven mainly by hemoperfusion (risk ratio, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.50-0.80]; p<0.001; 10 trials, n=557) and plasma exchange (risk ratio, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.42-0.96]; p=0.03; two trials, n=128). Pooling of all trials of blood purification for treatment of sepsis was no longer associated with lower mortality (risk ratio, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.71-1.13]; p=0.36; eight trials, n=457) after excluding trials using polymyxin B hemoperfusion. Blood purification techniques including hemoperfusion, plasma exchange, and hemofiltration with hemoperfusion were associated with lower mortality in patients with sepsis. These results were mainly influenced by studies using polymyxin B hemoperfusion from Japan.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Crit Care Med (Targu Mures)
                J Crit Care Med (Targu Mures)
                jccm
                jccm
                The Journal of Critical Care Medicine
                De Gruyter Open
                2393-1809
                2393-1817
                11 May 2017
                April 2017
                : 3
                : 2
                : 73-78
                Affiliations
                [1 ]universityUniversity of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Hatieganu”, Cluj-Napoca , dept1st Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care , Cluj-Napoca, Romania
                [2 ]Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepathology “Octavian Fodor” , Cluj-Napoca, Romania
                [3 ]University of Veterinary Medicine , Cluj-Napoca, Romania
                Author notes
                [* ]Caius M. Breazu, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Hatieganu”, Cluj-Napoca, 1st Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care; Regional Institute Gastroenterology and Hepathology “Octavian Fodor“, Cluj-Napoca. E-mail: csbreazu@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                jccm-2017-0010
                10.1515/jccm-2017-0010
                5769914
                © 2017 Walter De Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

                This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License.

                Page count
                Pages: 6
                Categories
                Case Report

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